Photosynthesis by: Kelly Neubert

Photosynthesis is the process in which plants turn sunlight into energy. It occurs in two phases: light-dependent and light-independent.

The first phase includes the light dependent reactions take place in the thylakoid membrane inside the chloroplast. During this stage light energy is converted to ATP (chemical energy) and NADPH.

Light energy excites electrons in photosystem II and also causes a water molecule to split, releasing a hydrogen molecule into the system, hydrogen into the thylakoid, and oxygen is now a waste product

The excited electrons move from photosystem II to an electron-acceptor molecule in the thylakoid membrane. The electron-acceptor molecule transfers the electrons along a series of electron-carriers to photosystem I.

Photosystem I transfers the electrons to a protein called ferrodoxin. Ferrodoxin transfers the electrons to the electron carrier NADP+, forming the energy-storing molecule NADPH.

In the second phase of photosynthesis, called the Calvin cycle, energy is stored in organic molecules such as glucose.

Six CO2 molecules combine with six 5-carbon compounds to form twelve 3-carbon molecules called 3-PGA. The chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH is transferred to the 3-PGA molecules to form high-energy molecules called G3P.

Two G3P molecules leave the cycle to be used for the production of glucose and other organic compounds. An enzyme called rubisco converts the remaining ten G3P molecules into 5-carbon molecules called RuBP. These molecules combine with new carbon dioxide molecules to continue the cycle.


Created with images by bachmont - "fotosíntesis ii / photosynthesis ii" • ansik - "drops" • Mhy - "cactus plant circles" • Prashant_sh - "Glowing in the day" • martie1swart - "Plant" • werner22brigitte - "scouring rush horsetail plant nature" • kevinlubin - "Plant" • Free the Image - "Pleased to meat you."

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