Christianity and Islam Project By: Gavin colby

Christianity was founded by Jesus Christ. The teachings are based on his life and what happened before. Jesus created the teachings of the Gospel, but Paul implemented them throughout the ancient world. Jesus is Son, God, and Man all at the same time. He was a Jew, born in Bethlehem to the virgin Mary.

It was founded around 20 A.D. Jesus was in his 30’s when he started teaching and making miracles happen.

There are references in the bible that say that Jesus started off as a carpenter. It is believed that he started his ministry around the age of 30 when he was baptized by John the Baptist. When John saw Jesus, he declared him the son of God.

He was accepted by most of the Community. Only the Roman’s didn’t ever like him. In some stories in the bible, his own people didn’t believe him. In one certain story he was threatened to be stoned by other Jews and Christians because they believed he was a fake.

Scholars have calculated that he died in between 30 and 36 A.D. He died by being crucified on a cross with two robbers. He carried a huge wooden cross up a hill and was then nailed to it. His feet were stacked on top of each other and then his hands were nailed on both sides of the cross. He then had a crown of thorns placed on his head. He was left hanging there for a few days until he died. He then rose three days later.

Peter and Paul took over the religion after he died with the help of Jesus’ disciples. They all spread the religion across the middle east. They were both disciples of Jesus.

Reformation: The protestant church was the end result of protests against the catholic church. A leading figure in this was Martin Luther, who one day nailed a list of his objections to a church door. His objections included the tradition of selling "indulgences" and other facets of Catholicism. His actions focused discontent among European rulers against the Pope and Catholicism. These objections were called the 95 theses. The protestant movement in England was centered on Henry VIII and his wish to marry whoever he wanted, when he wanted. He latched on to Protestantism as a vehicle to resolve his situation, creating the Church of England.

4 complaints: They objected the selling of indulgences. They believed God intended believers to seek repentance, and that faith alone, not deeds, would lead to salvation. They also objected to the basilica of St. Peter, also known as the St. Peter Scandal. That is when the pope who was very rich made the poor believers build the basilica with their own money.

Martin Luther: Born in Eisleben, Saxony, in modern southeast Germany, in 1483 on November 10. He became a monk after he made a promise for a thunderstorm to subside, and it did. The first few years of monastery life were difficult for Martin Luther, as he did not find the religious enlightenment he was seeking. A mentor told him to focus his life exclusively on Christ and this would later provide him with the guidance he sought. At age 27, he was given the opportunity to be a delegate to a church conference in Rome. He came away more disillusioned, and very discouraged by the immorality and corruption he witnessed there among the Catholic priests. From 1533 to his death in 1546, Martin Luther served as the dean of theology at University of Wittenberg. During this time, he suffered from many illnesses, including arthritis, heart problems and digestive disorders, and the physical pain and emotional strain of being a fugitive.

95 Theses: The 95 theses were a paper that Martin Luther made that was everything he had against the Roman Catholic Church. He posted them on the front door of a church then sent one to the pope and the saint, then faxed it across Germany and all of Europe. The church put a stop to it by banning him then making him a heretic, or a fugitive of the church.

Counter Reformation: The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563).

Council of Trent: 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, held in three parts from 1545 to 1563. Prompted by the Reformation, the Council of Trent was highly important for its sweeping decrees on self-reform and for its dogmatic definitions that clarified virtually every doctrine contested by the Protestants. Despite internal strife and two lengthy interruptions, the council played a vital role in revitalizing the Roman Catholic Church in many parts of Europe. Period one went from 1545-1547. Two was 1551-52. Three was 1562-63.

The inquisition: It was a judicial procedure and later an institution that was established by the papacy and, sometimes, by secular governments to combat heresy. The name was applied to commissions in the 13th century and subsequently to similar structures in early modern Europe.

The peace of Augsburg: First permanent legal basis for the coexistence of Lutheranism and Catholicism in Germany, promulgated on September 25, 1555, by the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire assembled earlier that year at Augsburg. The Peace allowed the state princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism as the religion of their domain and permitted the free emigration of residents who dissented. The legislation officially ended conflict between the two groups, though it made no provisions for other Protestant denominations, such as Calvinism.

As of 2010, Christianity was the world's largest religion, with an estimated 2.2 billion followers, about 31 percent of all 6.9 billion people on Earth. In America it is shrinking by one percentile every year even though the population is growing. The religious profile of the world is rapidly changing, driven primarily by differences in fertility rates and the size of youth populations among the world’s major religions, as well as by people switching faiths. Over the next four decades, Christians will remain the largest religious group, but Islam will grow faster than any other major religion. In the United States, Christians will decline from more than three-quarters of the population in 2010 to two-thirds in 2050, and Judaism will no longer be the largest non-Christian religion. Muslims will be more numerous in the U.S. than people who identify as Jewish on the basis of religion. Four out of every 10 Christians in the world will live in sub-Saharan Africa. The religion as a whole will stay around the same as it is right now.

The founder of Islam, is Muhammad. His full name is Abu al-Qāsim Muhammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim. He was born in 570 in Mecca, Aribia, now known as Saudi Arabia. He died on June 8, 632 in Medina. As a boy he lived a pretty traumatizing childhood. All of his family died and he was raised as an orphan by his uncle. Later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, where he stated he received his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", and complete surrender to him is the only way to God. He called his preaching Islam. He was accepted as the last prophet sent by God, or Allah in Arabian (symbol shown here الله), for the Muslims. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Muhammad's death was very common in that time, he died of a common fever. He died in his 60s, he never claimed that he was a god or special being. He said he was a normal person. After Muhammad’s death, Umar, a companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr. Many supported his decision and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph.

The split between the Sunni and the Shiites was caused by Muhammad’s death. After his death in 632, leadership of the Islamic community passed to Abu Bakr as his successor, one of Muhammad’s closest companions and the first true caliph. Some in the community felt that this succession was not legitimate, and that the title of caliph really belonged to Ali ibn Abi Talib. Ali’s claim was supported by the fact that he was Muhammad’s cousin, his adopted son, his first believer, and husband of his daughter Fatima. Both sides believe that Mohammed specifically designated their man.

Supporters of Abu became the Sunnis, those of ibn Ali the Shiites. There are a few reasons why the Sunni and Shia split from each other. It all started with the death of Muhammad, the debate between the next leader initially started all of it. There were massacres, and mass killings. The Sunni stance led Shia to reject politics as impure and argue that religion and the secular affairs of the state should always be separated.

The basic doctrines of Islam are collectively known as the Five Doctrines of Islamic Faith. They include a belief in the absolute unity of God, belief in angels, belief in prophets, belief in scriptures, and belief in the Final Judgment.

The faith of Islam spread very quickly after the death of the Prophet Mohammad in 632 A.D., largely due to three factors. These were, the ease of conversion, the political consolidation of the Islamic state and the remarkable military effectiveness of Islamic armies.

It was estimated in 2010 that the amount of Islam’s in the world are close to 1.6 billion.

Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world and is expected to pass Christianity by the end of the century. The number of Muslims will grow more than twice as fast as the world's population from now until 2050.

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