INTRO- In the late 1700's Thomas Jefferson and other southern leaders were talking about freeing their slaves.
-Eli Whitney's cotton gin made mass production of cotton possible.
- This made the slaves value rise.
"Cotton is King"
- As time passed cotton industry became a huge agricultural factory.
- More farmers wanted to get on the gig. They expanded their farms or made new ones.
-Northern shippers benefited from the cotton production. They received a large sum of the profits for shipping and trading the cotton.
In 1840 cotton accounted for 1/2 exports.
Because of the cotton industry explosion the south became an extremely strong and wealthy monarch.
"The Plantes "Aristocracy"
In 1850 only 1,733 families had more than 100 slaves.
This group provided the cream of the political and social leadership of the section and Nation.
Rich families sent their children to good schools such as (John C. Calhoun) (Jefferson Davis) became political figure.
"Slaves of the Slave System"
Land Butchery people move to west and North
Small got smaller and the big got bigger
The white population of the south was a follows Wealthy slave owners. b) Less wealthy slave owners. These people didn't own a majority of the slaves, but they made up a majority of the masters. c) Non-slave-holding whites (3/4 of South white population). These whites supported slavery because they wanted to eventually own slaves and achieve the "American dream" of moving up in society. The less prosperous non-slave-holding whites were known as "poor white trash" and "hillbillies." Civilization hadn't reached mountain whites who lived in the valley of the Appalachian range. They supported Abraham Lincoln's Union party.
Many free blacks settled in New Orleans.
Free blacks were generally not liked in the North and South. In the South, free blacks were prohibited from having certain jobs and forbidden from testifying against whites in court. They were known as the "3rd Race."
White southerners liked the black as an individual, but they hated the race. The white northerner professed to like the race, but disliked the individual.
Because the price of "black ivory" (slaves) was so high, slaves were smuggled into the South even though legal importation of African slaves into American ended in 1808. Most slaves were the offspring of slaves already in America.
Planters regarded slaves as major investments.
Life Under the Lash
"Black Belt": region of the South where most slaves were concentrated; stretched from South Carolina and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
Blacks managed to sustain family life in slavery.
Blacks formed their own religions from a mixture of Christian and African elements.
Responsorial: style of preaching in which the congregation responds to the preacher with remarks of "amen."
he Burdens of Bondage
Slaves were not permitted to read because reading brought ideas and ideas brought discontent.
Slavery in the South was known as the "peculiar institution."
Nat Turner's Rebellion: southern rebellion against slavery led by Nat Turner; the rebellion was defeated.
Enslaved Africans aboard the slave ship Amistad rebelled and took control of the ship in 1839. The ship landed in Long Island, but the Africans were eventually returned to Sierra Leone.
The South Lashes Back
From 1831-1832, Virginia defeated numerous emancipation bills. Other states followed suit, prohibiting all forms of emancipation. This series of emancipation setbacks was known as the nullification crisis of 1832. It silenced the voice of white southern abolitionism.
The Southerners argued that slavery was supported by the Bible, and that slavery was good for the Africans because it introduced them to slavery.
The Gag Resolution required all anti-slavery appeals to be tabled without debate in the House of Representatives.
In 1835, the government ordered the southern postmasters to destroy abolitionist material due to anti-abolitionist mobbing and rioting at a postal office in Charleston, South Carolina.
The Abolitionist Impact in the North
Abolitionists were, for a long time, unpopular in many parts of the North. The southern planters owed much money to the northern bankers. If the Union collapsed, these debts would not be repaid. Additionally, New England textile mills were supplied with cotton raised by the slaves. If slavery was abolished, then the cotton supply would be cut off, resulting in unemployment.
"Free soilers" opposed extending slavery to the western territories.