Gregor Mendel is known as the “Father of Genetics.” He was an Austrian monk and was the first person to experiment with genetics. He saw patterns in the different color flowers of pea plants and was curious how they changed each season.
Mendel’s Principle of Dominance, also known as Mendel’s third law, states that one of the alleles for a pair of inherited traits will be dominant and the other recessive, unless both alleles are recessive.
Genetics is the properties or features of an organism. Genetics is important because it helps scientists understand diseases and figure out how to cure them. With genetics, scientists can see how one area of the world may be impacted by a disease or disability compared to somewhere else, and it can help them target the problem easier.
A homozygous gene includes two of the same alleles, either dominant or recessive is allowed, but not both. A heterozygous gene includes one recessive and one dominant allele.
A genotype is the genes that the organism has for one certain trait, while a phenotype is the physical way of showing a trait.
A carrier is an organism that does not directly display a certain trait or disorder, but they do contain an allele that can potentially pass on the trait to offspring. A sex-linked trait is a trait that is only passed on either the ‘X’ or ‘Y’ chromosome, so men show more sex-linked traits than women.
A karyotype is the chromosomal outline of an organism. A pedigree is a chart that helps show certain traits through different generations. The epigenome is an “outer layer” of a person’s genetic information in their DNA. This makes it easier to read the gene expression and for them to be able to activate/silence specific genes.