Vietnam Culture of war

Values & Beliefs

The United States - Tried everything in it's power NOT to go to war. Anti-war marches and protests started as small among peace activists on college campuses, but then ended up gaining national attention. Within three years, protest groups earned the support of high officials. Long story short, the USA did not want to go to war. They did not want to pull young men from their families and force them to fight a war that lasted nearly 20 years.

Vietnam - For the civilians having to live in Vietnam for the span of the war, it was awful. It is estimated that about 3 million Vietnamese soldiers and civilians were killed in the war. Communist North Vietnam and US-backed South Vietnam were divided and lived in this conflict for 20 years. No one was really happy or eager to fight for either side, however they believed in defending their homes and either a communist or non-communist country. They fought for 2 decades before South Vietnam surrendered to communist North Vietnam to end the war.

Tactics

United States - One of the most dangerous and harmful weapons the United States used in Vietnam was Napalm B, an incendiary device that, when ignited, would burn anything it came into contact with. Napalm was used harmed many civilians do to the fact that the flames it created became out of control. Another tool that the United States used in Vietnam was Agent Orange - meant to destroy crop land and expose the enemy supply lines throughout the densely forested countryside. It turned out becoming a biological weapon. It rendered many of the areas it was used on unlivable and created mutations and caused diseases in many Vietnamese people.

Vietnam - The Vietcong's tactics. They fought a guerrilla war, ambushing US patrols, setting booby traps and landmines, and planting bombs in towns. ... The Americans couldn't identify who the enemy was.

Homefront

United States: Men and kids as young as 18 are being drafted to fight in Vietnam. There are protest groups that forming, and marches taking place in streets across the nation. Violence is starting to break out at these protests because people want their husbands, fathers, sons and brothers home.

Music

During the Vietnam war, a musical evolution began to rise. Refugees started writing collections of musical pieces that have become "classical" anthems for Vietnamese people both in Vietnam and abroad. Artists like Phạm Duy and the "Bob Dylan of Vietnam." Văn Cao wrote the national anthem.

Propaganda

Protests

The movement against the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War began in the U.S. with demonstrations in 1964 and grew in strength in later years. The U.S. became polarized between those who advocated continued involvement in Vietnam and those who wanted peace.

Media

The news was not doing very much to bring attention to what was truly happening in Vietnam. When America fully understood what was happening and what they're men were being sent to fight, they became outraged. The media used this to spread the word, cause fear, and turn American against Vietnam. They eventually used this to bring young troops into the spotlight.

Economics

The war strained the nation's production capacities, leading to imbalances in the industrial sector. Factories that would have been producing consumer goods were being used to make items from the military, causing controversy over the government's handling of economic policy. Interest rates rose. A large chunk of America's money was being used to build and buy supplies.

GOVERNMENT & FOREIGN POLICY

Economic and social support in South Vietnam before the US even got involved with the war. Yet slowly, throughout the presidencies of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson, the goal of modernizing South Vietnamese society and containing communism became increasingly implemented by military means.

The Draft

In America, men as young as 18, would have to join the war effort. As soon as they either graduated from high school, or became of age, they were needed along with all the other American troops, in Vietnam. On December 1, 1969, the Selective Service System of the United States conducted two lotteries to determine the order of call to military service in the Vietnam War for men born from 1944 to 1950. So then they no longer had a choice.

Family Roles

During the Vietnam war, there were many ups and downs - especially at home. The mothers were already expected to work around the house, but now they were expected to join the war effort and prepare their kids to join. The young girls just as their mothers. The young boys studied in school, but as soon as they turned 18 most of them would immediately enroll into the war. Most men in the family would also have to insist in the army. Otherwise they'd work on building bullets, guns, planes and other war materials.

Re-Integration into society

For many, returning home from war was difficult. Young men who had seen the most graphic of images, fought and lived through one of the most brutal wars in history, were expected to return home. Many had trouble facing their trauma. Families felt distant, they often fell apart and families went through divorces. American society had completely changed and was now being asked to revert back to it's former self. Mothers went found jobs

Purpose

The United States was not involved in the war for at first. The Soviet Union and America were seen as world superpowers. Communist-backed Russia started supporting Northern Vietnam, the U.S. got involved to help Southern Vietnam - who was also one of the United States' partners in trade.

As soon as America became involved, they were supplying Southern Vietnam with supplies they needed to fights, and materials civilians need to survive. Vietnam went to war with each other because Southern Vietnamese wanted to change the government from the communist-backed North Vietnamese. The U.S. was just trying to help them.

Race Equality

Vietnam coincided with the protests of the Civil Rights Movement and the rise of Black Power during 1960s America. Whilst African-Americans were discriminated at home but also within the U.S. armed forces, the effects of black power, the impact of the Civil Rights struggle. Amidst increasing tension, black soldiers embraced Black Power: culturally and politically. Vietnam was America’s first racially integrated conflict. Black and White men had fought in segregated units during war before, but now they fought side by side.

Credits:

Created with images by manhhai - "Lang Son 1950 (3)" • manhhai - "1950 Group of boys waving State of Vietnam flags" • manhhai - "North Vietnam 1950 - Street scene in Vĩnh Phú province" • manhhai - "Lang Son 1950 (48)" • manhhai - "SAIGON 1950 - FETE ET DEFILE DE 'HAI BA TRUNG'" • manhhai - "Lang Son 1950 (13)" • manhhai - "Vietnam 1950 - chợ Lạng Sơn" • manhhai - "SOUTH VIETNAM - SAIGON - OLD NEWSPAPER - THAN CHUNG 14/1/1950" • manhhai - "The Fall of Saigon, Vietnam in April, 1975" • manhhai - "Vietnam War 1969 - First Division US soldiers on reconnaissance" • manhhai - "1968 U.S. Soldier Gives Candy to Village Children near An Hoa" • manhhai - "Newsweek 1965 May 24 - Vietnam War in color, Americans in Action" • expertinfantry - "Vietnam War" • expertinfantry - "Vietnam War" • expertinfantry - "Vietnam War" • WikiImages - "bob dylan musician joan baez" • City of Boston Archives - "Student Exchange Day at City Hall - Students from the suburbs guests of Mayor John F. Collins at lunch" • manhhai - "Saigon 1960 - King of Thailand Visits Vietnam - Quốc vương Thái Lan viếng thăm Việt Nam" • Michael Rehfeldt - "VC Propaganda" • nutbird - "untitled image" • Michael Voelker - "Socialist propaganda" • nutbird - "untitled image" • manhhai - "1951 Vietnam War Propaganda Poster - Trường Huấn-Luyện KHÔNG QUÂN VIỆT-NAM" • manhhai - "HANOI 1967 - Panô cổ động tuyên truyền chủ nghĩa anh hùng của VC vẽ TT Johnson ở giữa với Hitler ở dưới cánh tay ông ta" • nutbird - "untitled image" • Prince Roy - "Saigon Propaganda Posters" • Wystan - "Oct. 16, 1965, news photo: antiwar and anti-protest demonstrations, together on the University of Michigan Diag." • Osbornb - "Abbie Hoffman" • manhhai - "Vietnam War - Fall of Saigon - Bà Kiều Mộng Thu, dân biểu Hạ viện, cùng với các dân biểu, nghị sĩ thuộc phe đối lập biểu tình ngồi chống chính phủ" • NYCMarines - "Vietnam Veterans: Refining their legacy" • Nestor's Blurrylife - "Anti War Protest" • manhhai - "Vietnam War - Fall of Saigon" • manhhai - "LIFE magazine, 16 April 1965 (1) - WITH A BRAVE CREW IN ADEADLY FIGHT" • manhhai - "1972 Navy helicopter based on the ammunition ship USS MOUNT HOOD, lowers ammunition onto the cruiser NEWPORT NEWS in the Gulf of Tonkin" • manhhai - "Photographer Killed - Two UPI staffers killed in Cambodia" • manhhai - "1973 Vietnam War Photo - Saigon Child Newspapers Sidewalk" • manhhai - "Vietnam war, newspaper 'Le courrier du Vietnam'." • expertinfantry - "Vietnam War" • expertinfantry - "Vietnam War" • expertinfantry - "Vietnam War" • manhhai - "Vietnam War 1968 - TQLC Việt Nam vượt sông Hương ngày 15-2-1968 trên tàu đổ bộ để tái chiếm cổ thành Huế." • manhhai - "1972 South Vietnam War Troops Move Up Rt.1" • manhhai - "Khe Sanh 1968 - No Man's Land Convoy US Troops - Vietnam War Press Photo" • The U.S. Army - "Michael Yashinski" • The U.S. Army - "Dale Panchot image" • The U.S. Army - "John D. Smith image" • conner395 - "Northern Constabulary - Fallen Hero - Centenary - PC Thomas King of Inverness-shire Constabulary" • Seattle Municipal Archives - "Taxi license testing station, 1960" • the bridge - "Mom & Me early 1960's" • BiblioArchives / LibraryArchives - "Antonius Franken tuning into his favourite television program... / Antonius Franken se prépare à regarder son émission de télévision préférée..." • manhhai - "1968 U.S. Troops Move Wounded in Operation Delaware in A Shau Valley" • manhhai - "The 25-year War: America's Military Role in Vietnam / by Bruce Palmer" • Glyn Lowe Photoworks. - "The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Flag" • manhhai - "1966 Kyoichi Sawada - Japan" • manhhai - "Khe Sanh 1967 - Hill 881" • manhhai - "Vietnam War 1972 - Photo by A. Abbas - Kontum" • manhhai - "1961 - Vietnam War"

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