The aquifers ability to hold water depends on it's porosity and permeability. Porosity is the space between the partials in the rock that water is stored in. And Permeability is the ability for the water to flow through the rock. Aquifers can diminish in quantity of water, so a recharge zone is important. A Recharge zone Is an area where the fresh water comes from. Pollution at the recharge zones are most dangerous, as what pollutes it can polite the ground water that many areas depend on.
Fresh water is a big deal, as its one of the limited resources that we consume or diminish quickly. From melting glaciers, to extracting water from the aquifer, irrigation, and polluting the rivers and streams. We must conserve and protect our fresh water. As well as our aquifers, surface water, and watersheds that impact our environment.
Water use and management
Patterns of water use
Water use in the states, as well as most countries in the world with access to clean portable water, is determined by the availability of fresh water. As well as the population sizes that determine the demand, and economic conditions in that country.
- Over 80% of fresh water used in Asia for agriculture
- 30% for agriculture in Europe
- 19% in industry (hightest in North America and Europe)
- 8% is for household drinking and cleaning
Fresh water that's being used has to be up to quality standardized for human consumption, or Portable, making it safe to drink. Treating the water removes mercury, arsenic, as well as lead from the water that is poisonous to humans even in low concentrations. Pathogens, which are organisms that cause illnesses or disease, needs to be removed as well.
- Water is filtered to remove bigger organisms and garbage
- Alum is mixed into the water, floccing it (putting chemiscals that draws and kills bacteria) and making removal of bacterial easier.
- Sand, gravel, and hard coal is used as a filter again
- Chlorine is mixed in, preventing further bacteria
- Air is forced through the water to remove harmful gasses (can improve taste and odor of water)
- Optional: some communities add fluorine to water that can reduce tooth decay
Dams as well as irrigation a method of providing plants with water sources other than direct precipitation, are important for human grease water usage. Dams are large structures, blocking rivers and controlling he flow of freshwater. The dams then create resevoirs, or artificial lakes, behind them allowing water to be distributed through canal or directly to treatment plants. Aqueducts are also used to easily transport water to regions that lack water.
- Tech that reduces evaporation and water runoff
- Recycling of cooling water in industries
- Low flow toilets and shorter showers
- Watering lawn at night
- And distillation, removal of salt from salt water to make it fresh water.
As humans waste and destroy our land, our water suffers too. As water pollution (introduction of chemical, physical, or biological agents that degrade water quality,) grows, organisms that depend on the water will be affected negatively. Industrialization and growing human population only creates more of a polluted water supply for us and all organisms. Direct pollution from a single source, or point-source pollution, can come directly from factories or leaks from oil tankers. And indirect Nonpoint-source pollution which is pollution from different sources that are often difficult to identify. Both can cause major problems for ecosystems and habitats.