Water Kellen vaneck, ZacH fite

WATER RESORCES

Distribution of water:

Water comes in three forms of matter: gas (water vapor), solid (ice), and liquid (water).

As the water vapor rises into the air, it cools and condenses into drops of liquid water that form clouds. Eventually it condenses to the point that causes presipitation that falls back to the surface. Whether it's into the ground water, into fresh bodies of water, or the ocean. As we know, only a small fraction of the earths water is fresh water, roughly 3%.

Surface water:

Surface water, or water on the earths surface, can be found in lakes, rivers, streams, and wetlands. River systems are systems of rivers that move across the land and form a flowing network of water. River systems can provide lush greenery to large areas, and create an ecosystem for plants and animals. Watersheds are areas of land that is drained by a river. Rivers once have ran through land, will drain into a much larger body of water, which usually is the ocean. Any water that gets absorbs into the earth rather than running off it gets captured into the groundwater. Groundwater is stored water in the sediment of the earth's crust. The area that contains the groundwater is the aquifer. Aquifers work like a sponge, sucking in and storing the water

The aquifers ability to hold water depends on it's porosity and permeability. Porosity is the space between the partials in the rock that water is stored in. And Permeability is the ability for the water to flow through the rock. Aquifers can diminish in quantity of water, so a recharge zone is important. A Recharge zone Is an area where the fresh water comes from. Pollution at the recharge zones are most dangerous, as what pollutes it can polite the ground water that many areas depend on.

Fresh water is a big deal, as its one of the limited resources that we consume or diminish quickly. From melting glaciers, to extracting water from the aquifer, irrigation, and polluting the rivers and streams. We must conserve and protect our fresh water. As well as our aquifers, surface water, and watersheds that impact our environment.

Water use and management

Patterns of water use

Water use in the states, as well as most countries in the world with access to clean portable water, is determined by the availability of fresh water. As well as the population sizes that determine the demand, and economic conditions in that country.

Water usage

  • Over 80% of fresh water used in Asia for agriculture
  • 30% for agriculture in Europe
  • 19% in industry (hightest in North America and Europe)
  • 8% is for household drinking and cleaning

Fresh water that's being used has to be up to quality standardized for human consumption, or Portable, making it safe to drink. Treating the water removes mercury, arsenic, as well as lead from the water that is poisonous to humans even in low concentrations. Pathogens, which are organisms that cause illnesses or disease, needs to be removed as well.

Water treatment

  1. Water is filtered to remove bigger organisms and garbage
  2. Alum is mixed into the water, floccing it (putting chemiscals that draws and kills bacteria) and making removal of bacterial easier.
  3. Sand, gravel, and hard coal is used as a filter again
  4. Chlorine is mixed in, preventing further bacteria
  5. Air is forced through the water to remove harmful gasses (can improve taste and odor of water)
  6. Optional: some communities add fluorine to water that can reduce tooth decay

Dams as well as irrigation a method of providing plants with water sources other than direct precipitation, are important for human grease water usage. Dams are large structures, blocking rivers and controlling he flow of freshwater. The dams then create resevoirs, or artificial lakes, behind them allowing water to be distributed through canal or directly to treatment plants. Aqueducts are also used to easily transport water to regions that lack water.

Conservation

  • Tech that reduces evaporation and water runoff
  • Recycling of cooling water in industries
  • Low flow toilets and shorter showers
  • Watering lawn at night
  • And distillation, removal of salt from salt water to make it fresh water. 

Water pollution

As humans waste and destroy our land, our water suffers too. As water pollution (introduction of chemical, physical, or biological agents that degrade water quality,) grows, organisms that depend on the water will be affected negatively. Industrialization and growing human population only creates more of a polluted water supply for us and all organisms. Direct pollution from a single source, or point-source pollution, can come directly from factories or leaks from oil tankers. And indirect Nonpoint-source pollution which is pollution from different sources that are often difficult to identify. Both can cause major problems for ecosystems and habitats.

Types of pollutants

  • Pathogens- disease causing organisms; bacteria, and viruses
  • Organic matter- animal and plant matter ransoms, food waste and fecies
  • Organic chemicals- pesticides, plastics, and fertilizersl
  • Inorganic chemicals- acids, bases, salts
  • Heavy metals- lead, mercury, arsenic
  • Physical agents- heat and subfaded solids

As water in lakes and ponds can be cleaned up in time, Waste water, or water that contains waste form homes and industries, can do real damage to ground water. As waste water and pollutants infiltrate the ground and infects the ground water, it may take a long time to repair. Ground water recharges slowly, taking up to hundreds of years as its dispersed through out large areas of rock and sand.

Even thermal pollution, when the temperature of a body of water increases, can mean big problems for oceans or lakes. It can kill hundred of thousands of organisms that never adapted to changes in the waters temperature. Ocean pollutions can differ from dumping, to oil spills, chemical waste, medical waste, and the thermal pollution. Of all the waste that contaminates, it only magnifies as each organism gets eaten up the food chain. The accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain is called Biomagnifucation.

Laws to prevent water pollution

  • Clean water act- banned discharge into waters, as well as removing metals from waste water.
  • Marine protection act- gives the EPA control over sewage dumping
  • Safe drinking water act- protects ground water, water quality, and water infrastructure assistance.
  • Comprehensive environmental response compensation and liability act(CERCLA)- also known as the superfund act, is responsible for hazardous waste clean up.
  • Water quality act- supports state and local efforts to clean polluted runoff. Also loans funds for water treatment plants and protects estuaries
  • Oil pollution act- protects U.S. Waterways from oil and oil waste

Water pollution affects us all, animal and plant. Protecting our water is essential for survival, so polluting that essention resource could kill us all, directly and/or indirectly.

Created By
Kellen Vaneck
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Credits:

Created with images by RyanMcGuire - "lotus water lily dahlia anemone" • Keoni Cabral - "Pretty City. Don't swim after storm."

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