Battle of Midway Brigid Huebner and Sophie Collins

Background of The Time Period

Pearl Harbor
  • On December 8, 1941–the day after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor–the Japanese moved against British-controlled Malay, steam rollering across Thailand and landing in northern Malay ("Japan Celebrates Major Victory in the Pacific")
  • Japan was trying to become a Pacific power
  • On February 5 1942, Yamashita brought up heavy siege guns to the tip of the peninsula and began bombarding Singapore. On February 8, thousands of Japanese troops began streaming across the narrow waterway and established several bridgeheads
  • Military rulers of Japan set out to expand in Asia and were very succesful in some battles but suffered devastating loses in others ( Davidson and Stoff 819)
  • On May 7, 1942, the Battle of Coral Sea was the first naval battle fought between Japan and US ("Battle of Midway: Timeline of Significant Events")
  • Japan lost 3 aircraft carriers that were planned to be used at Midway

Causes and Goals

  • Japan wanted to avenge the bombings from the Tokyo air raid ("The Battle of Midway)
  • Plug the hole in their Eastern defensive perimeter formed by U.S. control of the island of Midway
  • Finish off the US Pacific Fleet, and perhaps even invade and take Hawaii
  • Japan had wanted to sink aircraft carriers not sunk in Pearl Harbor (“Battle of Midway”)
  • Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku chose a place close to Pearl Harbor to draw out American fleets knowing that when they went to counter attack Japan would be able to beat the United States (“Battle of Midway”)

Timeline of the Battle of Midway

island of Midway
  • Location: Midway Atoll 1,300 miles northwest of Oahu ("The Battle of Midway at a Glance")
  • Date: June 4-7, 1942
  • United States were able to hear some of the Japanese orders that were being given as early as May 2 (“Battle of Midway”)
  • Intelligence play started weeks before the battle started with Commander Admiral Chester W. Nimitz able to hear Japanese plans and set up U.S carriers in a position to surprise them
  • Day of battle was made known in a message sent on May 16 (“Battle of Midway”)
  • When final decisions were made Japan's plan had been changed drastically
  • Station Hypo (where the cryptanalysts were based in Hawaii) was able to also give the date (June 4th or 5th) and the order of battle of the Imperial Japanese Navy. (“Battle of Midway: At a Glance”)
  • Scott's found Japan early June 4 (“Battle of Midway”)
  • Initial mid-way planes were not successful
  • The battle started when 4 Japanese planes attacked an aged dam at Midway
  • 6 am June 4th - Japanese carrier strike force bombed Midway's installations (Battle of Midway: Timeline of Significant Events)
  • US Marine Corps shot down many key Japanese pilots
  • 7 am June 4th - US planes were flying out to look for more Japanese ships and strikers
  • June 4th 9am - Japan become aware that US Navy carrier forces were in the area
  • June 5th - US navy general sent a message to task force commanders saying "You have participated in the Battle of Midway today have written a glorious page in our history. I am proud to be associated with you." (Battle of Midway: Timeline of Significant Events)
  • June 6th 4:15 am - United States' Yorktown crew began to try to save the Yorktown ship
  • 1:34 pm - Yorktown got abandoned and Hammann got shot down by Japanese torpedoes
  • Torpedo bombers were destroyed when separated from dive bombers. 36 of 42 shot down (“Battle of Midway”)
  • Caused a distraction for Japan allowing dive bombers to arie
  • June 7th - Yorktown capsized and sunk, Japanese heavy cruiser got sunk. Japanese appalled by there loses had already begun a general retirement.(June 4-5) ("Battle of Midway World War II")
  • Pushed back Japan, American victory!

After Math

  • America lost more than 300 seaman(“Battle of Midway”)
  • Sank 4 fleet ships
  • Japan lost 322 aircrafts
  • America lost 147 aircrafts
  • Created permanent damage on the Japanese Navy ("Battle of Midway")
  • Turning point in the Pacific ocean
  • Caused the US to move into an offensive position
  • Japans worst loss of people was trained mechanics

Work Cited

  • "Battle of Midway." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  • "Battle+of+midway." Google Search. Google, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  • Davidson, James West., Michael B. Stoff, and Herman J. Viola. Prentice Hall the American Nation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.
  • History.com Staff. "Battle of Midway." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  • "Japan Celebrates Major Victory in the Pacific." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  • Kelly, Jason. "Battle of Midway: Timeline of Significant Events." Navy Live. N.p., 27 Sept. 2013. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  • "THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY AT A GLANCE:." The National WWII Museum New Orleans. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.
  • "The Battle of Midway." Battle of Midway. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017

Credits:

Created with images by UNC - CFC - USFK - "USS Thach (FFG 43)"

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