Bladder Cancer Mark Aaronson

What is Bladder Cancer and How does it Form?

https://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder/patient/bladder-treatment-pdq
  • Bladder is the hollow organ in the pelvis that contains/stores urine
  • Releases urine through the contraction of the muscles
  • Bladder Cancer is a tumor that is formed in the bladder due to uncontrollable rapid cell growth and spread
  • Symptoms include: blood in the urine, painful urination, frequent urination, back pain, pelvic pain, urination problems
  • A definite cause is not determined but there are factors that increase the chances of catching it
  • Possible auses/factors: Smoking, chemical exposures such as those found in dyes, rubber, leather, paint, and textile, use of certain medicines (pioglitazone), arsenic, not drinking enough fluids
  • Stages of cancer:
  • Stage 0- cancer has grown inside the hollow center of the bladder or inner lining but has not spread throughout the bladder
  • Stage 1- cancer has grown into the layer of tissue beneath the lining layer of the bladder wall
  • Stage 2- cancer has grown into the muscle layer of the bladder wall
  • Stage 3- cancer has grown through the bladder wall into the surrounding fatty tissue
  • Stage 4- Cancer has grown through the bladder wall and into the pelvic or abdominal wall and possibly spread to other sites such as the liver, bones, or lungs

Treatment and Diagnosis

  • Tests for Bladder cancer Include:
  • Urinalysis- examination of the urine for different substances
  • Urine catology- examination of urine for cancerous cells
  • Urine culture- tested if cancer signs are present, sample of urine is left in a dish to see if bacteria will grow in it
  • Cystoscopy- a tube with a small camera is sent up the urethra and fills the bladder with water to examine for cancerous tumors
  • Scans like x-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound
  • TNM tests describe how the cancer has spread around the body:
  • T- describes how far the main tumor has grown through the bladder wall and whether it has grown into nearby tissues
  • N- indicates any cancer spread to lymph nodes near the bladder. Lymph nodes are bean-sized collections of immune system cells, to which cancers often spread first
  • M- indicates whether or not the cancer has spread to distant sites, such as other organs or lymph nodes that are not near the bladder
  • Treatment:
  • Surgery
  • Intravesical therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy
http://www.theaidsreader.com/articles/recurrent-urothelial-bladder-cancer-among-hiv-infected-patients

Statistics and Prevention

  • Bladder cancer accounts for about 5% of all cancer treatments in the US
  • More common in older people (average age 73)
  • In 2017 so far 60,490 men have been diagnosed, 12,240 have died
  • In 2017 so far 18,540 women have been diagnosed, 4,630 have died
  • Men have a 1 in 26 chance of catching it in their life time
  • Women have a 1 in 88 chance of catching it in their life time
  • Prevention:
  • Don't smoke
  • Limit exposure to chemicals
  • Drink plenty of liquid
  • Eat lots of fruit and vegetables
https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/vector-modern-bladder-cancer-awareness-circles-420339073

Citations

  • https://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladder-cancer.html
  • http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bladder-cancer/basics/definition/con-20027606
  • http://www.cancercenter.com/bladder-cancer/stages/tab/stage-1/

Credits:

Created with images by jronaldlee - "Yellow Ribbon"

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