Grammar Study Guide By: Eden Massey

Active And Passive Tense

The active voice is when the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action

  • Jimmy baked his family cookies for the Holidays
  • Susan Decorated the Christmas Tree

The passive voice is when the subject of the sentence is the receiver of the action

  • Sarah had been buying her family gifts
  • You have been skiing over the Holiday

One good way to discern between active and passive voice is to see if the verb phrase has helping verbs. If it does, then it's passive

Perfect and Progressive Tense

Progressive tense contains a form of the verb "be" and a present participle

  • Past Progressive: Tabitha was wrapping presents for the kids.
  • Present Progressive: Dan is helping make the Christmas feast.
  • Future Progressive: Phil will be finishing with his holiday shopping soon.

Perfect tense contains a form of the verb "have" and a past participle

  • Past Perfect: Courtney has asked all her family what they want for Christmas.
  • Present Perfect: They have purchased all their friend's presents.
  • Future Perfect: Morgan will have made enough treats for the holiday bake sale by tomorrow


There are four different moods: Indicative, Imperative, Emphatic, Subjunctive.

Indicative asks a question or states a fact

  • We can work together to decorate the tree.
  • What do we need to bring for the Holiday dinner?

Imperative gives a command

  • Go get me those ornaments.
  • Listen to the holiday music.

Emphatic is Do + Verb

  • I do hope to get lots of presents this year.
  • Sydney did get a puppy for Christmas.

Subjunctive is a wish or desire, or something contrary to fact, or a demand. Subjunctive voice trumps all other voices.

  • I wish that my Christmas tree was already decorated.
  • If only she had already baked the cookies, then she would be ready for the bake sale.

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