Nigel Rudolph


Understanding the past: Crystal River Site... Culture and History

The crystal river mound site: a cosmopolitan community Cosmopolitan... belonging to all the world; not limited to just one part of the world No naturally occurring copper, came from someone else Came from somebody else or travelers from Florida picked it up and took it back home. See it in the desert southwest Architecture determined cosmopolitan

Music: Peruvian Copper pan flutes have been found Made in wood but wrapped with copper

Crystal River Site... 61.55 acres along the Crystal River Mound H is rectangular platform with a long ramp Mound K/J: Native Americans ate everything there (ate a lot of oysters) Clarence B. Moore (hired by Smithsonian) drew artifacts did accurate map of crystal river called donut Moore 1901, 1903, 1917 Ridley Bullen archaeologist set the designations called bullen designations...

1500 to 2000 bodies


Mound A: 30ft. (height), first recorded by C.B. More in the early 1900s Bulldozed 2/3 to build a trailer park

1993 noname storm, destroyed the trailer park, four feet of water. Sold the property.

Midden B: mounds J and K by bullen in 1960 Excavations in midden B and mound K by bullen

Main burial complex: excavated by both Moore and bullen

Contained many exotic materials and artifacts Came from the golf of Mexico Canoes brought back materials to make it

E: 20 meters wide Biggs Mound Kentucky

Mound H: excavated by bullen 15ft tall, ramp points to plaza area thought to be used for ceremonial gatherings Still in tact Lined directly under the milkyway

Mound G: 5ft. Tall Bullen excavated over 30 burials from Mound G in the 1930s Totally separate group, executed their burial ground Possible for multiple cultures to live in one area

Stele: purposefully placed rock The big rock was to Welcome or warn the approach ceremonial center Deteriating quickly 70s and 80s acid rain was terrible

Interaction and trade: the Making of a cosmopolitan community Connection by smaller designs and motifs Marine shell traded for exotic materials in midwestern region

Artifacts found... Hand is very common known as the southern cult. What's next? Dug out canoe, recovered from a site, 45 min away from Gainesville Used as a mantel, lady sold to the state for research purposes New interpretive science Window to the past: took it down in 1981, could see a skeleton Federal law to display human remains

The Dig

Throughout the dig, we worked on quads SE and NE. First we cleared up TU9 by clipping any unwanted weeds that had grown since our last archeology dig. After TU9 was all cleaned up, we worked on shaving the dirt to find any artifacts on the surface.

Continuing this process, we came across a record breaking amount of 33 flakes only within 10 CMBD! Below are quite a bit of artifacts that we found.

Record Level Forms

The dig went smoothly and everyone put in tiredless work to finish up for the day. The work was light because everyone participated and everyone was willing to lend a helping hand, making the dig not seem like a job that needs to get done but a hobby.


John 13: 14-15... Jesus washes his disciples feet.

There were two reasons why he washed his disciples feet.

  1. Give us mercy
  2. Give us a message

The message is, unconditional grace. Before we make a mistake, we have mercy; afterwards we have His grace.

6 Word Memoirs:

  • Mercy covers us, grace carries us.
  • Because He did it, so should we.
  • Mercy goes before us always.
  • When something wrong happens, grace.
  • Share more grace, receive more mercy.
  • He shows us mercy and grace.
  • Show God's character by giving mercy.
  • Be a good person, give grace.
  • Mercy goes before, grace always follows.
  • Mercy from God, is a blessing.
  • Hilary, Josue, Isaac, Misty, Sam, Ashley, Gabbie, Siyona, Mr. Davis, Dr. Butler, and Ms. Anita

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