Ancient India By: Abigail Boudah

Indus River

The Indus River flooded reliably, two times a year. Once in the spring after the snow melted on the mountains and in the summer when the monsoon winds would would would bring heavy rain. The predictability of the flooding enable farmer to grow and harvest crops twice a year along the river as the calories within the ground thrived.

Harappan CivilizationĀ 

From 3000 BCE to about 1800 BCE the Harappan civilization thrived along the Indus River Valley, where more then 30,000 people lived. They build dense multi-story homes along straight streets in a grid-like pattern. The Harappan's had the first indoor centralized drainage system that used gravity to remove water and waste from the city.

Trade between Civilizations

Archeologist have unearth many artifacts in the within the India that were made in Mesopotamia. Proving that there was trades made between the Misopotamia and the Harappan's. Also unearthed were Harappan clay seals (pictured above) along other Indus artifacts within the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, which enables us to understand that trade between the Harappan's and other Civilizations were happening.

The Decline of the Harappan'sĀ 

The real reason that the Harappan civilization declined is unknown, however there are different theories historians believe could be the reason for the decline. One theory is that the Harappan's civilization was taken over by other civilization. Since the Harappan's did not have a lot of weapons that they made, it would be very easy for others to take over their land. Other theory includes that the Harappan's had fallen to diseases that were incurable. Finally a theory that seems to me, what most historians believe to be true is that massive earth quacks and flooding changed the courses of the rivers and the Indus River dried up. Which crippled the Harappan's ability to farm.

Aryan migration

From 1500 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E. the Aryan's began to migrate to the north and settling in Northern India. This migration allowed interaction as well of clashing between the Aryan's and the people that already lived in Northern India. By blending these cultures it created political conflict among the cultures but it also added social stability and control throughout the area.

The Vedas

By 1500 B.C.E. many of the Aryans had invaded the northern India and imposing their weapons and Vedic culture on the towns people who already lived their. The history of the Vedic culture is known to us only by the writings within the Vedas which is sacred hymns composed by Aryan priests around 800 B.E.C. when the writing system came about. The Vedas included religious rituals but also included a lot of information about the Aryan culture.

Caste System

Within the Aryan society, a caste system was created to divided everyone into different social classes. At the top of the social class was the Brahmins or the priests who spoke with the gods, below them were the Kshatriyas, who were the warriors. Three steps down from the top are the Vaisyas which were the merchants and Artisams that provided for the priest and the warriors. Below the Vaisyas, who were the labors and the farmers and at the bottom of the caste system were the untouchables. The untouchables were people who dealt with dead people and animals in some way.


Being bottom for the social class as an untouchables could not be easy for them, but their their faith in dharma, karma and samsara gave them a brighter outlook in a better life next time around. Dharma is the role/job that the person has, which is primarily assigned at birth due to what caste their parents are. You are unable to change your role within society but you can have good karma by being a good person and then enter in Samara or reincarnation and in your next life you will enter as a higher being.


In the 6th centenary B.C.E. a man by the name of Gautama meditated for over a month under a tree until he finally understood the meaning of life. He began teaching that "all life is suffering, and our suffering comes from desires and to rid of the suffering you must rid of the desires by following eight-fold path on how to live. Buddhism unlike Hinduism, was very rigged with meditation and rituals.


Ashoka began his reign by defeting his bothers with violence in a bloody civil war were his army killed thousands of people. Once he became ruler he no longer supported violence and had remorse for the people he killed. He then became a Buddhist and went around preaching the values of Buddhism and became a important figure in history as he was out to improve peoples lives, by building roads, hospitals, water wells and irrigation systems. Unlike other rulers in the past he encouraged others to be tolerable of each other no matter what their religion or social class was.

Created By
Abigail Boudah


Created with images by the opoponax - "India Itinerary - Option A"

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