PDST - Primary Language Curriculum e-Bulletin 5, Learning Outcome 10. Fluency & Self Correction

This e-Bulletin will focus on Developing Fluency in Reading. Learning Outcome 10: Fluency & Self-Correction. Toradh Foghlama 10: Líofacht agus Féincheartú. There is scope for the learning experiences described here to be used or adapted when addressing other Learning Outcomes across the Primary Language Curriculum / Curaclam Teanga na Bunscoile.

Freastalaíonn an e-bulletin seo ar chur chun cinn an Bhéarla agus na Gaeilge le páistí bunscoile.

Developing Reading Fluency

The Three Dimensions of Reading Fluency

Reading fluency is a key component of successful reading and is essential for comprehension.

We are able to identify fluent readers when we hear them but what precisely is fluent reading? Fluent reading, the hallmark of proficient readers, involves reading accurately, at an appropriate pace while using meaningful expression. Fluency has three dimensions, accuracy, automaticity and prosody.

If automaticity is the fluency link to word recognition, prosody completes the bridge by linking fluency to comprehension (Rasinski, 2012, pg 519).

Reading: Learning Outcome 10: Fluency and Self-Correction

Léitheoireacht: Toradh Foghlama 10: Líofacht & Féincheartú

The Fluency Bridge

Comprehension is the goal of reading.When readers read with expression they read with meaning. One of our roles as educators is to help pupils move from purposeful decoding to effortless word recognition to support expressive reading that conveys meaning.

Fluency bridges the gap to comprehension (Pikulski, Chard 2005).

Below you will find a series of task cards which contain suggestions for learning experiences, approaches and resources that relate to Learning Outcome 10. Fluency and Self-Correction.The suggested approaches are playful and engaging and support an inclusive learning environment. They provide opportunities for children to meaningfully access the learning outcome in order to reach their full potential. Teachers can choose the explicit focus of the learning outcome based on the interests, needs, and abilities of the children in the class. We would encourage you to download these task cards and adapt them to suit the needs and interests of your class.

Poetry, Readers Theatre scripts, speeches, monologues, song lyrics, jokes, and riddles are appropriate texts for developing fluency and expression (Rasinski, 2004)

Task Card 1: The Fluency Development Lesson

The Fluency Development Lesson (FDL) combines several elements of effective fluency instruction- modelling, choral reading, repeated reading, word study and performance into a synergistic approach that maximises students reading into a short period of time. With its emphasis on reading and rereading, followed by performance and word study, the FDL has proven to support all pupils to enhance their word recognition, fluency and comprehension skills. This 20-30 minute daily or near daily routine uses a short text, often a poem or short story. The purpose of the lesson is to develop a reading characterised by meaningful expression. The FDL supports an inclusive learning environment and is recommended for use both with developing and struggling readers.

Chomh maith leis sin, cabhróidh an straitéis seo leis na paistí cruinneas, líofacht agus saibhreas na teanga a fhorbairt sa Gaeilge.

Task Card 2: Repeated Reading through the Magic of Song

The repetitious nature of singing provides opportunities for improving pupils’ reading fluency in a fun and enjoyable way. When pupils sing while tracking the lyrics to songs they are, in essence, reading! Song lyrics offer huge potential for learning: they are often peppered with poetic features such as rhyme, alliteration and assonance; the memorability of the lyrics provides opportunities to reinforce sight words for our developing readers; and the melodic nature of songs requires the singer/reader to attend to the expressive nature of the lyric. Painless and enjoyable repeated reading? Yes please!

Gan amhras, baineann na buanna céanna le hamhráin Ghaeilge freisin.

Task Card 3: Reader's Theatre

Repeated readings are perhaps one of the best ways to develop and improve fluency (Rasinski, 2006).

Reader's Theatre is an authentic way to promote repeated readings. Readers do not memorise their lines. Reader's Theatre focuses the pupils on delivering meaning to their audience. As there is no scenery, costumes or props, readers focus on using their voice to carry the meaning effectively (Young, 2009)

Research has shown its potential to improve reading performance but also has illustrated it as an engaging and motivating experience for pupils that develops confidence.

Most of the literature on Reader's Theatre describes a structure which typically takes place over five days which involves, practice, conferencing or mini lessons on fluency, practice in school and at home by the children and concludes with a sharing of the script for an audience.

Task Card 4: Word Study

Word knowledge impacts significantly on accuracy and automaticity, and therefore, word study should be emphasised during fluency instruction.

Automaticity and accuracy are achieved through repeated practice with words. Developing automaticity and accuracy, leads to an improvement in reading speed, which improves comprehension, and ultimately develops children into confident readers.

The following task cards outline some effective, fun and motivating approaches to word study, that could be adopted in the context of fluency instruction. These approaches can be amended to suit the interests, abilities and needs of the children in your context.

Is bealach iontach iad na roghchláir páistí a spreagadh le bheith gníomhach ag cur eolas ar fhocail agus cabhróidh siad leo cruinneas agus líofacht a fhorbairt sa nGaeilge chomh maith.

Task Card 5: Self Assessment & Peer Assessment

Instilling a disposition of self-awareness and self-regulation is crucial in developing children into confident, proficient and fluent readers.

In this task card we will focus on peer and self-assessment as an effective assessment strategy, in achieving better outcomes for children with fluency and self-correction.

Self-monitoring and peer assessment does not generally happen at the end of a particular piece of work or a period of time. It usually takes place in the day-to-day, minute-by-minute interactions between teachers and children during the fluency lesson. In this way, the teacher can integrate assessment for learning into teacher-child interactions and children can come to regard it a natural part of how they learn in school (Assessment Guidelines, 2007).


Cecil, N. L. (2007). Focus on Fluency. New York: Routledge

Doherty, U. (2012), (2017) Focus on Fluency. Curriculum Development Unit, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick.

Florian, L., & Spratt, J. (2013). Enacting inclusion: a framework for interrogating inclusive practice. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 28(2), 119e135

Graves, M.F. 2016. The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction. New York: Teachers College Press.

Graves, M. F., & Watts-Taffe, S. M. 2002. The place of word consciousness in a research-based vocabulary program. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed., pp. 140-165). Newark, DE: IRA.

Iwasaki, B. Rasinski, T. Yildirim, K. Ximmerman, B. (2013) Let’s Bring Back The Magic Of Song For Teaching Reading. The Reading Teacher. 67. 137-141.. DOt10.1002/TRTR.1203

Mandel Morrow, L. Gambrell, L. (2019) Best Practices in Literacy Instruction, Sixth Edition, Guilford Press

Rasinski, T. V. (2012). Why reading fluency should be hot. The Reading Teacher, 65(8), 516-522

Rasinski, T. Padak, N. (2008) From Phonics to Fluency. Effective teaching of decoding and reading fluency in the elementary school. Pearson education.

Rasinski, T.V. (2006). Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. International Reading Association, 59(7), 704-706.

Rasinski, T. (2004). Creating fluent readers. Educational Leadership, 61, 46-51.

Sadler, D.R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instr Sci 18, 119–144.

Young , C. Rasinski, T. (2017) Tiered Fluency Instruction: Supporting Diverse Learners in grades 2-5, North Mankato MN: MaupinHouse Publishers.

Young, C. (2009) Implementing Readers Theatre as an Approach to Classroom Fluency Instruction. In The Reading Teacher. September 2009. Accessed https://researchgate.net/publication/250054377

Vasinda, Sheri & Mcleod, Julie. (2011). Extending Readers Theatre: A Powerful and Purposeful Match With Podcasting. The Reading Teacher. 64. 486 - 497. 10.1598/RT.64.7.2.


Created with images by Gaelle Marcel - "untitled image" • Avel Chuklanov - "untitled image" • Aaron Burden - "untitled image"