CHAPTER 11 SpaRkpage

Cell Cycle

The cell cycle: the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

During the cell cycle, the cell must grow, copy its DNA, and physically split into two daughter cells.

Interphase

In this stage of the cell cycle, the cell roughly doubles the number of its cytoplasmic components and makes a copy of its DNA.

There are three stages of interphase:

  • G1 Phase: in this phase, the cell grows larger and copies organelles
  • S Phase: in this phase, the cell synthesizes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus. And, it duplicates the centrosome.
  • G2 Phase: in this phase, the cell grows more and makes protein and organelles

Prophase

Prophase is the first stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears.

Metaphase

This is the second stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers.

Anaphase

This is the third stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.

Telophase

This is the fourth and final stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes/chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.

Telomeres

Telomeres are the caps at the end of each strand of DNA that protect the chromosomes. They prevent one chromosome from binding to another. It also plays a role in the rejuvenation of aged tissues, but it can also be dangerous.

Cancer

A malignant neoplasms that gets progressively worse and is dangerous to health. It is the disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.

- Each year, cancer causes 15-20% of all human deaths in developed countries - Lifestyle choices can reduce one's risk of acquiring mutations

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