Zambia By: Raquel Fisk

Map Of Zambia

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Zambia is located in South Central African

Lusaka

The Capital of Zambia

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Lusaka was not always the capital of Zambia. In fact, the city Lusaka did not even exist before 1930. Where Lusaka is now was once apart of a piece of land known as Northern Rhodesia under British colonial rule. Kalomo was originally the capital of Northern Rhodesian until 1911, when Livingstone became the capital. Lusaka was not built until 1930, and became the capital of Northern Rhodesia in 1935. Northern Rhodesia was owned by the British South Africa Company from the 1890's up to 1964, when Zambia gained its independence. Lusaka became the new capital of Northern Rhodesia due to its excellent location, more central than that of Livingstone ("Lusaka").

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Lusaka was a frequent meeting place for many leaders of Africa who were involved in the liberation struggle for starting as far back as and mid 1900's. In 1948, the the Northern Rhodesia African Congress, a group that spoke for African rights, was founded right in Lusaka . After Zambia gained independence, Lusaka increased in size. Just between 1963 and 1969, Lusaka gained 148,000 more people ("Lusaka"). By 2004, Lusaka's population had exploded to than 1.2 million people("Lusaka"). Zambia currently has a population of roughly 10,462,000 (Juang 1157).

The Colonial Period

The boundaries we see on the map, today labeled "Zambia", were not even a country until British Colonization. In fact, the territory didn't become Zambia until its independence in 1964. Zambia used to be known as Northern Rhodesia. One of the first British leaders in the territory now known as Zambia was Cecil Rhodes, head of the BSAC (the British South Africa Company) which had established trade and some basic governmental institutions, by 1889. In 1924, Britain formally seized control of Northern Rhodesia, colonizing and governing it using indirect rule. Northern Rhodesia had an abundance of copper, which offered many business opportunities. Between 1929 and 1939, the opening of four copper mines helped to create a business boom in what as still called Northern Rhodesia . Railways were built to transport copper from place to place within Northern Rhodesia and then on to, Mozambique, from where the ore shipped overseas (Juang 1157). In the 1960's Zambia's economy continued to improve as a result of rising copper prices (in part because of the Vietnam War), and Zambia became the world's third largest copper manufacturer ("Zambia." Britannica School).

Independence for Zambia

Although Norther Rhodesia (modern day Zambia) was white ruled, the British still feared the country's rising economical growth and strength as a possible source of African power. Zambia's steadily improving economy was due in part to the very copper trading market that the British had established).

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The Central African Federation was formed by the British as an attempt to maintain control and maintain their influence in Zambia. In response to the formal establishment of white power, in 1948, the Africans created the Northern Rhodesia Congress (which in 1951, later became the NRANC, the Northern Rhodesia African National Congress) (Murray 194). What was the purpose of this congress? To stop the federation. These plans were sought up by many leaders and important figures in the modern day Zambian capital, Lusaka.

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Leaders such as Kenneth Kaunda became pioneers for Zambia's independence. This group became known as UNIP or the United National Independence Party.

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After much turmoil and a series of rebellions and revolts, in 1963, the federation disintegrated (Murray 194). In 1964, Zambia gained independence (though it was still apart of the British empire).

Symbols of Zambia

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The black and white squiggly lines on the shield that is being held by the man and the woman is a representation of Victoria Falls ("Zambian Symbols"). The motto is "One Zambia, One Nation" .

Effects of Colinization

POSITIVE:

The British industrialized Zambia during their colonization of the country. The UK established a market, and a government that expanded the economy of Zambia. This not only happened in Zambia, this occurred throughout Africa in countries under British colonial rule. Africa's natural resources were exploited and traded in an international market which also contributed to the steady rise of Africa's economy (Murray 194). Another positive affect of colonization was the improvement of the standard of living. The copper mines created jobs, advancing the circulation of money, improving the standard of living for many Africans (Murray 194).

NEGATIVE

There were numerous native peoples living in Africa before the arrival of white missionaries and colonizers from Europe. The barrier lines defining the different countries of Africa that we see today did not exist in pre-colonial Africa. When boundaries of different colonies were set in by countries such as Britain, France, and Portugal, the natives experienced much confusion and turmoil. Tribal relations that had already been established over centuries were thrown into chaos by colonization as European powers divided up territory according to their own criteria and without consulting the African peoples who had lived there for centuries. Whether motivated by the paternalistic philosophy of the "white man's burden" ( in Rudyard Kipling infamous phrase) or pure greed for Africa's resources, colonizers completely overlooked the traditional and cultural backgrounds of the natives. Enemies were forced to become friends in one colony and natives who had been friends were turned into enemies due to the new borders established by the colonizers. Africa is still dealing with the negative affects of colonization to this day.

Why Live in Zambia?

1. Perfect Weather

Much of Zambia is a plateau that ranges from 910-1,370 m above sea level. Although elevations range throughout Zambia, the general reason for Zambia's beautiful weather is its elevation ("Zambia." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations). Unlike our four seasons here in Massachusetts, Zambia has three; there are two dry seasons and a wet season (Zambia Tourism). Temperatures in the day time lie between 73-88°F. The Coldest it gets is May or June which is only 68 degrees and it rarely gets that cold ("Moving to Zambia." InterNations).

2. National Parks

South Luangwa National Park
"Possibly Africa’s finest walking safari destination"-Emma Gregg, award-winning travel writer for Rough Guides

Zambia is filled with beautiful National parks. Zambia has one of the best National parks in Africa. There are roughly 732 species of birds all throughout Zambia along with beautiful animals such as lions, zebra, giraffe, and much more ("Zambia". Zambia Tourism).

There is a large variety of animals in Zambia National parkshttp://www.zambiatourism.com/destinations/national-parks/south-luangwa-national-park#prettyPhoto

3. Kayaking, Canoeing, and Rafting

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4. Shiwa Ngandu and Kapishya

This beautiful site was created by Stewart Gore-Brown, a British officer, in 1911.

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5. Bungee Jumping

From a bridge...
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Highlights of Zambia

Batoka Gorge

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There is a project called the Batoka Hydro-electric Scheme (HES) which is located very near to the Gorge. It was thought up of in 1972. The goal of this project is to find a way to generate power. Zambia and Zimbabwe are both in desperate need for power generation. This gorge will make up to 1,600MW (which gives 800MW to Zambia and 800 MW to Zimbabwe) (Batoka Gorge Hydro-Electric Scheme).

The Zambezi River

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The far left picture is the Zambezi river right at the foot of Victoria falls in Zambia.

The Zambezi river is the fourth largest river in all of Africa at 2,700 km long ("Zambezi River Facts."). It rushes out from Zambia and flows into six countries total: Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique (including Zambia) ("Zambezi River Facts."). From Mozambique, it dumps into the Indian ocean. The river is so powerful that it has been used as a power source by Zimbabwe and Mozambique. In fact, the Botaka Gorge project is largely connected to the Zambezi river ("The Zambezi River.").

Victoria Falls

One of the top 10 biggest waterfalls in the WORLD...
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Known as ‘Mosi-oa-Tunya’ (meaning "the smoke that thunders") in the 1800s by the Kololo tribe, Victoria falls is one of the most jaw dropping sights in the world (Zambia. Zambia Tourism). The falls empty into the Zambezi river, causing a ferocious current to stir form in the otherwise, calm river (Zambia. Zambia Tourism) . When rainfall is at its peak of the year, more than five hundred million cubic meters come crashing down over the edge of Victoria falls. Victoria falls is one of the top ten largest waterfalls in the world ("Top 10 Most Beautiful Waterfalls in the World"). Victoria falls is also depicted in the coat of arms symbol of Zambia.

Thanks For Watching

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Bibliography

Works Cited

“Background Information Document.” Batoka Gorge Hydro-Electric Scheme, www.internationalrafting.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Batoka-Gorge-Bidv3.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

JJArtsPhotography. Skyline photo of Lusaka city at night. 28 Mar. 2016. iStock, Getty Images, media.istockphoto.com/photos/skyline-photo-of-lusaka-city-at-night-picture-id515706884?k=6&m=515706884&s=170667a&w=0&h=jNEtME2dwsaOad3YvMdSljHgpZu1qnMjIQ_h6Od6Mr0=.

Juang, Richard M., et al. Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History : a Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2008.

Kerstetter, Nancy. “Important Landmarks & Landforms in Zambia.” USATODAY, TRAVEL TIPS, traveltips.usatoday.com/important-landmarks-landforms-zambia-59597.html.

“Lusaka.” New Encyclopedia of Africa, edited by John Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, 2nd ed., vol. 3, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008, pp. 419-420. Gale Virtual Reference Library, libraries.state.ma.us/login?gwurl=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=GVRL&sw=w&u=mlin_m_newtnsh&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CCX3049000395&asid=8837b59979401a99f3535ad3adf96bd0. Accessed 31 Jan. 2017.

Map Africa With Zambia Highlighted. Templategallery, sawyoo.com, 2017, www.sawyoo.com/postpic/2009/08/zambia-on-africa-map_70455.png. Accessed 25 Jan. 2017. Map.

Map of Zambia. World Map, 2016, www.worldmap1.com/map/zambia-map. Accessed 25 Jan. 2017.

“Moving to Zambia.” InterNations, www.internations.org/zambia-expats/guide/moving-to-zambia-18024?ref=gco_rel_tl. Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

Murray, Jocelyn. Cultural Atlas of Africa. Revised edition ed., New York, Checkmark Books, 1998.

“Top 10 Most Beautiful Waterfalls in the World.” Places To See, Placestoseeinyourlifetime, www.placestoseeinyourlifetime.com/top-10-most-beautiful-waterfalls-in-the-world-709/.

“The Zambezi River.” Victoria Falls Travel Guide, Tony and Boo Peel, 2017, www.victoriafalls-guide.net/zambezi-river.html. Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

“Zambezi River Facts.” Africa Facts, interesting-africa-facts.com/Africa-Landforms/Zambezi-River-Facts.html. Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

“Zambia.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 Sep. 2016. school.eb.com/levels/high/article/109719. Accessed 2 Feb. 2017.

“Zambia.” Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, edited by Timothy L. Gall and Derek M. Gleason, 13th ed., Gale, 2012. World History in Context, libraries.state.ma.us/login?gwurl=http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ2305100423/WHIC?u=mlin_m_newtnsh&xid=f7ecd81b. Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

Zambia. Zambia Tourism, 2016, www.zambiatourism.com. Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

“Zambian Symbols.” WorldAtlas, 2016, www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/zambia/zmsymbols.htm. Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

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