Ancient African Kingdoms Jeremiah holladay

  • 50% of Ghana lies less than 499 feet above sea level. Highest point is Mount Afadjato (2877 feet) and lowest point is Gulf of Guinea (0 feet). The climate is tropical.
  • Religions are Muslim, Christianity, traditionalist, and other. Ghana was the center of British slave trade. Western traders arrived with ships loaded with manufactured goods to trade for slaves. Ghana traded gold, ivory, and slaves for salt from Arab and horses, cloth, weapons, and books from North Africa and Europe.
  • The empire lasted from 300 A.D. - 1200 A.D. Tunka Manin brought the empire to the height of its power. Outside influence caused the spread of Islam throughout Ghana. English is the main language of current Ghana. Jollof rice, Fante Kinkey, Fufu, and Banku/Akple are the main foods. The government is a Parliamentary Democracy.
Location of Ghana empire
  • 65% of country is desert or semi-desert. Lowest point is Senegal River (75 feet) and highest point is Hamboro Tondo (3789 feet). Mostly Muslim with little Christianity, and they all believe in animism. Traded slaves all throughout Africa. Gold was the main export and was very abundant. Imports include salt and other goods from North Africa.
  • Sundiata was the founder and the greatest leader was Mansa Musa. The empire lasted from 1230 - 1600 A.D. Thirty languages are spoken in modern Mali (French is main one)
"Castle" of Ancient Mali
  • Main river of the Songhai empire is the Niger (like the other two empires). From Atlantic Ocean to modern-day Nigeria. The empire was in power from 1464-1591. Sunni Ali was the founder of the empire and Askia Muhammed brought the empire to the height of its power.
  • Animism and Islam with the law based on Islam. Slaves transported goods and were sold to Europe. Exported gold, imported salt and other goods. Oral history was told through griots. Located in modern-day Ghana and Mali.
Where the Songhai empire ruled over
  • Nile River and Red Sea were sources of water for the Axum Empire. Located in modern day Ethiopia, Sudan, Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia. King Ezana led the empire to the height of its power and converted the empire to Christianity. Major center of trade (by land and by water). Traded salt, ivory, gold, gems, glass, and olive oil (not slaves). Lasted from 100-1400 A.D. Mix of Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arabian culture. Had its own written language and minted coins. Famine and military coups destroy modern day Axum (mainly Ethiopia).


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