Every month in a polar climate has an average temperature of less than 0 °C (33 °F).
The sun shines for long hours in the summer, and for many fewer hours in the winter.
A polar climate results in treeless tundra, glaciers, or a permanent or semi-permanent layer of ice. It has cool summers and very cold winters.
On Earth, the only continent where the ice cap polar climate is predominant is Antarctica. All but a few isolated coastal areas on the island of Greenland also have the ice cap climate.
Some parts of the Arctic are covered by ice (sea ice, glacial ice, or snow) year-round, and nearly all parts of the Arctic experience long periods with some form of ice on the surface. Average January temperatures range from about −40 to 0 °C (−8 to 32 °F), and winter temperatures can drop below −50 °C (−58 °F) over large parts of the Arctic. Average July temperatures range from about −10 to 10 °C (14 to 50 °F), with some land areas occasionally exceeding 30 °C(86 °F) in summer.
The Arctic consists of ocean that is nearly surrounded by land. As such, the climate of much of the Arctic is moderated by the ocean water, which can never have a temperature below −2 °C (28 °F). In winter, this relatively warm water, even though covered by the polar ice pack, keeps the North Pole from being the coldest place in the Northern Hemisphere, and it is also part of the reason that Antarctica is so much colder than the Arctic. In summer, the presence of the nearby water keeps coastal areas from warming as much as they might otherwise, just as it does in temperate regions with maritime climates.
The climate of Antarctica is the coldest on the whole of Earth. Antarctica has the lowest temperature ever recorded: −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at Vostok Station. It is also extremely dry (technically a desert), averaging 166 millimetres (6.5 in) of precipitation per year. Even so, on most parts of the continent the snow rarely melts and is eventually compressed to become the glacial ice that makes up the ice sheet. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent.
Climate Change at the Poles
Among the biggest threats to the poles is rapid climate change.Atmospheric carbon dioxide has been rising for more than a century, with hefty contributions from the fossil fuels used to power our homes, businesses, and cars.
The warming of polar oceans has powerful implications for organisms living there—and for us. Polar sea ice helps regulate Earth's climate. White ice reflects more of the Sun's energy back into space than does dark water. Without sea ice, Earth would absorb more solar radiation—and our climate would be even warmer.
How to prevent ?
According to the scientists putting reflecting particles into the air reduces the amount of sunlight. And we should reduce green house gases.
So our mission is lowering our carbon footprints.