Values in Leadership
On the other hand situationalists argue that leaders and their style of leadership are evoked by time and the situation.
Three forms of Disequilibrium:
1) The problem introduces no new challenge, and therefore a a response form the current repertoire may restore equilibrium.
2) When no ready solution is presented to the problem, and so short term equilibrium is established with long term consequences.
3) Society may learn to meet new challenge.
Patterns of responses that fail to adapt to challenges and avoid distress are called work avoidance mechanisms.
The Strategic Defense Initiative
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was an initiative by former president Ronald Reagan that was supposed to make nuclear weapons "impotent."
Although viewed as a bold move of leadership, it was also seen as deception.
Deception in leadership is generally used to:
1) Bring people slowly to face tough realities
2) To disarm the public
3) To satisfy the public's desire for good news
The Roots of Authority
Leadership = Authority
Authority cause serious constraints on the exercise of leadership .
The Function of Dominance in Primate Societies
Dominance serves similar functions across species, although social arrangements vary in primate societies from fluid to rigidly hierarchical.
Within both the chimpanzees and gorilla packs, there existed an alpha or leader that was at the center of attention at the pack for guidance and protection.