Climate of Russian Tundra

Average Rainfall (inches):  Average rainfall is between 6-10 inches per year. Minimum is 4 inches per year, maximum is 20-30 inches per year.

Average Temperature (F): Average temperature for the warmest seasons is below 50 degrees; for the coldest seasons, the average is around -20 degrees. Minimum is -49 degrees, maximum is 65 degrees.

Seasons: The tundra biome is often stuck in the winter season for the majority of the year, if not all the entire year. Most often, the tundra biome has short spring seasons, where temperatures rise and vegetation grows.


Net Primary Productivity

The tundra biome is typically found in a range from 60-70 degrees latitude North. Compared to other biomes, the Tundra is very low on the Net Primary Productivity scale (600 Kilocalories/ square meter/ year). Also, the tundra biome is very barren and receives much less rainfall than other biomes. However, one main difference is that the Tundra takes up a greater percentage of the Earth's Land surface. The tundra is not very diverse in that it does not have an abundance of species.

Soil Quality

The soil in the Tundra has very low nutrients and cannot support much vegetation. Due to a permanent frozen layer under the soil called permafrost, plants with deep roots cannot grow in this environment. This soil is not typically used when farming because it does not provide adequate nutrition and is often frozen for the majority of the year.

INVASIVE: The European/Common Rabbit

The European Rabbit, also known as the common rabbit is originally from Southern Europe and North Africa. It was introduced to all continents expects parts of Asia and Antartica. This extremely fast-reproducing rabbit species was brought to various countries around the world as a food source during that country's colonial days. Due to the fact that they were brought for a reason would mean it was on purpose. However, the extreme overpopulation of them was unintentional.

ENDANGERED: The Amur Tiger (Siberian Tiger)

The Amur Tiger or Siberian Tiger originate in eastern Russia, northern China, and the Korean peninsula. Mostly living on the mountain range east of the Amur River, this species is on the critically endangered list due to poaching and loss of habitat. (Overexploitation and Habitat Destruction in H.I.P.P.C.O.) The Amur Tiger was originally desired by poachers for their fur and bones for Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, more recently, the Amur Tiger species is threatened by loss of habitat due to logging.

ENDANGERED : The Snow Sheep

The Snow Sheep, also known as the Siberian bighorn sheep, is a mountain dwelling sheep. They are on the endangered list due to extensive poaching for their horns and fur coat. (Overexploitation in H.I.P.P.C.O.) Also, hunters view the Snow Sheep as a "trophy kill."

Common Animals in the Russian Tundra


Characteristics that make caribou thrive in the Russian Tundra is their ability to migrate extremely far distances and form herds. Also, caribou have hooves that adapt to the season as well as a thick coat for warmth during cold seasons.

Musk Ox

The Musk Ox is very successful in the Tundra biome due to it's extremely large size, simple eating habits, warm fur and ability to form herds. It's large size helps to ward off predators and when being preyed upon, they form circles with their herd for protection. Also, they have simple vegetarian eating habits, eating many grasses and mosses grown in the Tundra.

Arctic Fox

The Arctic Fox is most well known for their seasonally-changing fur coat. This helps them survive in the Tundra biome because they get a heavier, warmer, white coat in the winter to keep them warm and blend in with the white snow to protect against predators.

Plants in the Tundra Biome

Arctic Moss

Arctic Moss is very well adapted to harsh climates in the Tundra. It can survive the extremely high winds and frozen temperature, often experienced in the Russian Tundra. It does not require much sunlight, nutrients, or water. It also grows very low to the ground, giving it a survival advantage.These characteristics allow it to thrive in the tundra biome.


The bearberry plant is an adaptable plant that grows low to the ground, allowing it to withstand harsh winds. It also grows fine hairs on the leaves that keep it warm in freezing temperatures.

Arctic Willow

The arctic willow grows flat on the ground, which allows it to withstand high winds. They also often grow behind rocks to protect against winds. It has adapted to permafrost by growing short roots that do not need to grow far into the earth to survive.

Created By
Ella Babcock


Created with images by Andrea Pokrzywinski - "Ptarmigan" • Martin Cooper Ipswich - "Rabbit" • USFWS Headquarters - "Tiger Amur" • skeeze - "bighorn sheep rams resting" • mypubliclands - "BLM Summer Roadtrip: Wildlife in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska" • mmmavocado - "Musk Ox Farm, near Palmer" • diapicard - "arctic fox mammal fox" • Kitty Terwolbeck - "Wet wet wet - soggy hiking ground" • ChadoNihi - "lingonberry cowberry red whortleberry" • Watson Lake - "Red Valley"

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