Geography & History. 4ºeso eStela crespo.


A society is made up of a group of people who interact with each other and who live in a specific geographical area. The people in a society are generally divided into differents social groups, acording to the wealth, social role, ethnic group or culture.


John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917. He became one of the youngest president of United States on 1961 until he were assassinated on November 1963 (as the result of a conspiracy). At 43 years of age he was the presidential candidate of the democratic partie and beat Richard Nixon.

During his presidency took place: The Cuban Missile Crisis, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the establishment of the Peace Corps, developments in the Space Race, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Trade Expansion Act to lower tariffs, and the Civil Rights Movement. Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with Communist states, he increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam.

Many people have regarded Kennedy as an icon of American hopes and aspirations; nowadays is steel consider one of the best presidents of the United States.


  1. The subjects (not citizens) had no rights.
  2. The monarch was not responsible for his or her acts.
  3. The subjects (not citizens) had no rights.The monarch was helped by civil servants in the administrationThe Parliament (Estados Generales in France or Cortes in Spain)
  4. was rarely gathered and only consulted in matters of taxes, and for advice.
  5. It was formed by three estates that met separately.
  6. Divine origin of power.
  7. The monarch had the three powers:
  • Legislative (pass laws),
  • Executive (govern)
  • Judicial (interpret the laws and judge people)
During the absolute monarchy
agricultura señorial.
  • Agriculture: the most important activity.
  • Self-consumerism.
  • Very low yields (rendimientos).
  • Little trade.
  • Local and regional trade.
  • Periodical subsistence crisis.
  • Hunger.
  • Poverty.
  • The majority of the lands were owned by the nobility and the Church Most of the population were peasants.
  • They worked the landsof the landlords and they had to pay a lot of taxes and otherpersonal services.


In the 18th century ,the last Austrian king, Carlos II, died without offspring, so he appointed heir to Philip of Anjou (the grandson of the French king Luis XIV). The main European countries (GB, Holland, Portugal and Austria) disagreed with this, because of the power of France and declared war to France and Spain.

Carlos II
Philip of Anjou

In this international conflict:

  • Castile supported the Bourbon monarch.
  • Aragon supported Carlos of Austria, because they thought that Philip would take the fueros away.
  • Philip won the battle of Almansa in 1707, and occupied Valencia and Aragon.

When Carlos inherited the crown of Austria (his brother died) the European powers negotiated a peace treaty with France: UTRECHT TREATY (1713)

Philip V was accepted as Spanish king, but he renounced his rights in France.

Spanish European territories in Belgium and Italy passed to Austria.

Gibraltar and Menorca passed to GB. (Menorca was recovered in 1802).

Catalonia resisted but was defeated in 1714.

French revolution


The Cádiz Cortes was the first national assembly to claim sovereignty in Spain. It represented the abolition of the old kingdoms. It met as one body and its members represented the entire Spanish empire. The sessions of the national legislative body met in the safe haven of Cádiz during the French occupation of Spain during the Napoleonic Wars. By historians is a major step towards liberalism and democracy in the history of Spain. The liberal Cortes passed the Spanish Constitution of 1812

La Constitucion de 1812

The Constitution never entered fully into effect either: much of Spain was ruled by the French, while the rest of the country was in the hands of interim junta governments focused on resistance to the Bonapartes rather than on the immediate establishment of a constitutional regime. In the overseas territories many did not recognize the legitimacy of these interim metropolitan governments, leading to a power vacuum and the establishment of separate juntas on the American continent. On 1814, Ferdinand VII abolished the constitution and had all monuments to it torn down. Yet the constitution was reinstated during the Trienio Liberal (was a period of 3 years in the history of Spain, when the liberal government ruled Spain after a military uprising)


  • Absolute monarchies were reinstated. The European monarchs who had been deposed by Napoleon returned to their thrones.
  • European borders were changed because of Napoleon´s conquests.
  • European powers agreed to support any monarch who was theatened by revoluvion or any attempt to limit his/her power.
two alliances:
  • The holly aliance: the monarch of the great powers (Russia, Austria and Prussia) promised to support each other.
  • The quadruple alliance: Russia, Austria, Prussia and Great Britain will have regular meetings in order to resolve European´s problems.
The four main powers that had defeated Napoleon benefited from the new map of Europe:
  • RUSSIA: was given Finland, part of the Ottoman Empire and part of poland. it bacame the main power of the continient.
  • PRISSIA: was given Rineland, part of Poland and part of Saxony, but was divided into two.
  • AUSTRIA: was given Lombardy-Venetia (north of Italy), part of Poland, Dalmatia and Tyrol.
  • THE UNITED KINGDOM: was given control of the Mediterranean and Baltic sea through a series of strategic possesions, including Malta and the Lonian Islands.
Other importanr changes included:
  • Belgium and United Provinces (Holland) were united to form the kingdom of the Netherlands.
  • The German confederation was formed from 39 German states. They were dominated by Austria, where the confederation´s parliment was located, and by Prussia.
  • Italy remained divided into 7 states
  • Sweden was given Norway, which had previously beeen controlled by Denmark.
  • France was reduced in size to its 1791 borders.


Liberalism is a political philosophy that emphasises the role of liberty, social liberalism stresses the importance of equality (political movement during the Age of Enlightenment). Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights...

The key principles which 19th-century liberals supported were:

  • Constitutions that guaranteed citizens' rights and liberties
  • Constitucional monarchy as the form of goverment
  • Separations of powers, with executive power held by the monarch and the goverment, legislative power held by the cortes or parliament and judicial power held by the courts.
  • Natrional sovereight though limited male suffrage based on property ownership
  • Individual liberties, such as freedom of association and expression, freedom of the press, and freedom of religion


  • Liberals
  • Right
  • Better relationship between the church
  • Limited sufraged
  • They wanted to end with the Ancient Regime
  • Less interested in freedom and rights, but more in law and order
  • Interested on property
  • Had the power in spain for longer


  • liberals
  • Left
  • Limited male suffrage, low property requeriment
  • Interested in freedom and rights, more than in law
  • Problems with the church
  • More reforms
  • They wanted the end of the Ancient Regime


Collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the creation of specific laws for labour relations. Workers also fought to achieve political rights.

Problems of the Factory System
  • Factories were crowded, dark, and dirty
  • Workers worked from dawn to dusk
  • Young children worked with dangerous machinery
  • Employment of women and children put men out of work
  • Women and children were paid less for the same work
  • Technological unemployment – workers lost their jobs as their labor was replaced by machines

The armed peace in Europe 1870-1914

  1. Tension between the European countries was growing.
  2. They dedicated a large part of their production to manufacturing weapons.
  3. The importance of the German Empire
  4. The Bismarckian system (1871-1890)
  5. The expansionist foreign policy of Wilhelm II (1890-1914)
The importance of the German Empire
  1. After the unification (1871) Germany became the most important power in Europe (economic and military development).
  2. There were two phases of German foreign policy.
The Bismarckian system (1871-1890)
  1. The emperor Wilhelm I use diplomacy to maintain the balance of power among European countries.
  2. Bismarck, the chancellor, created a system of alliances with Russia, Austro Hungarian Empire and Italy, trying to:Maintain Germany hegemony in Europe.
  3. Maintain friendly relations with other countries.
  4. Prevent France from declaring war on Germany to recover Alsace-Lorraine.
  5. For this, Bismarck strengthen the German army.
  6. Other countries did the same thing.This is known as the arms race.
The expansionist foreign policy of Wilhelm II system (1890-1914)
  1. The new Kaiser (emperor)Wilhelm II change the system of alliances of an expansionist policy.
  2. The aim was to obtain a colonial empire.
  3. Wilhelm II didn't renew the alliance with the Russian Empire, and Russia and France became allies (France had invested in Russian industry).
  4. Great Britain was worried because of the hegemony of Germany, and formed the Triple Entente with Russia in order to stop the Germany’s expansion.
Created By
Estela Crespo

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