THE WAR OF SUCCESSION
In the 18th century ,the last Austrian king, Carlos II, died without offspring, so he appointed heir to Philip of Anjou (the grandson of the French king Luis XIV). The main European countries (GB, Holland, Portugal and Austria) disagreed with this, because of the power of France and declared war to France and Spain.
In this international conflict:
- Castile supported the Bourbon monarch.
- Aragon supported Carlos of Austria, because they thought that Philip would take the fueros away.
- Philip won the battle of Almansa in 1707, and occupied Valencia and Aragon.
When Carlos inherited the crown of Austria (his brother died) the European powers negotiated a peace treaty with France: UTRECHT TREATY (1713)
Philip V was accepted as Spanish king, but he renounced his rights in France.
Spanish European territories in Belgium and Italy passed to Austria.
Gibraltar and Menorca passed to GB. (Menorca was recovered in 1802).
Catalonia resisted but was defeated in 1714.
THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA (1815)
- Absolute monarchies were reinstated. The European monarchs who had been deposed by Napoleon returned to their thrones.
- European borders were changed because of Napoleon´s conquests.
- European powers agreed to support any monarch who was theatened by revoluvion or any attempt to limit his/her power.
- The holly aliance: the monarch of the great powers (Russia, Austria and Prussia) promised to support each other.
- The quadruple alliance: Russia, Austria, Prussia and Great Britain will have regular meetings in order to resolve European´s problems.
The four main powers that had defeated Napoleon benefited from the new map of Europe:
- RUSSIA: was given Finland, part of the Ottoman Empire and part of poland. it bacame the main power of the continient.
- PRISSIA: was given Rineland, part of Poland and part of Saxony, but was divided into two.
- AUSTRIA: was given Lombardy-Venetia (north of Italy), part of Poland, Dalmatia and Tyrol.
- THE UNITED KINGDOM: was given control of the Mediterranean and Baltic sea through a series of strategic possesions, including Malta and the Lonian Islands.
Other importanr changes included:
- Belgium and United Provinces (Holland) were united to form the kingdom of the Netherlands.
- The German confederation was formed from 39 German states. They were dominated by Austria, where the confederation´s parliment was located, and by Prussia.
- Italy remained divided into 7 states
- Sweden was given Norway, which had previously beeen controlled by Denmark.
- France was reduced in size to its 1791 borders.
Liberalism is a political philosophy that emphasises the role of liberty, social liberalism stresses the importance of equality (political movement during the Age of Enlightenment). Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights...
The key principles which 19th-century liberals supported were:
- Constitutions that guaranteed citizens' rights and liberties
- Constitucional monarchy as the form of goverment
- Separations of powers, with executive power held by the monarch and the goverment, legislative power held by the cortes or parliament and judicial power held by the courts.
- Natrional sovereight though limited male suffrage based on property ownership
- Individual liberties, such as freedom of association and expression, freedom of the press, and freedom of religion
- Better relationship between the church
- Limited sufraged
- They wanted to end with the Ancient Regime
- Less interested in freedom and rights, but more in law and order
- Interested on property
- Had the power in spain for longer
- Limited male suffrage, low property requeriment
- Interested in freedom and rights, more than in law
- Problems with the church
- More reforms
- They wanted the end of the Ancient Regime