Chapter 8 Biology MalcolM McCarvill

James Watson and Francis Crick are thought to have discovered DNA as we know it today, back in the1950's. James Watson and Francis Crick did not actually discover DNA, they siamply discovered that DNA was in the shape of a double helix, but they would have never come to this conclusion without all the information from other scientists from the past.'

Chargaffs Rule states that DNA from any cell from any organism must have a ratio of 1:1 in pyramidine and purine bases.

The four base pairs are bound together by a hydrogen bond. Each sugar ring has a nucleotide base attached, either Guanine, Adenine, Cysotine, or Thymine.

A chromosome is a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protien found in the nucleus of most living cells that carries genetic information in the form of genes.

A Karotype is the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.

DNA replication occurs when the double helix is unwound and each lonesome strand acts as a template for the newly forming partner strand. When the two strands break apart they are identical strands which leads to forming two identical strands of DNA from the original 1.

DNA damage is an alteration in the chemical structure of the double helix. There is either a break in a strand of the DNA or a missing piece from the backbone of the DNA. This damage is caused from natural processes or from metabolic or hydrolytic processes.


Created with images by ColiN00B - "dna dns biology" • M Pinarci - "DNA strand"

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