What is "Fateh Misr"
Fateh Misr is the Arabic expression of Fatemi conquest of Misr (Egypt) in the tenth century. The word "Fateh" in Arabic refers to open a thing. This is true in the sense that it justifies Aimmat Tāhereen’s SA pious motives behind this conquest. With Aimmat Tāhereen’s SA conquest of Misr, the doors of Barakāt and Sa'adāt were opened for the people of Misr for centuries to come.
The Political Aspect
The Iksh’idis served as governors for the Abbasids in Egypt from 935 to 969, however as time passed their allegiance turned nominal towards the Abbasids and the Abbasids sovereign power was restricted.
Hence, the political condition of Egypt had been weary which the people were quick to realize , due to this impasse the people expected the Imām SA to conquer Egypt and salvage it from tyranny of the Europeans, Christians and the Qarāmitah in Sham.
The Economical Aspect
Egypt was reliant upon the flow of Nile for its prosperity. The years preceding the conquest of Imām SA Egypt was exposed to droughts and subsequently, the famines, high inflation, outbreaks of plague and subsequently low revenues had depleted incomes of the treasury leading to lower governmental spending. This worsened their economic conditions which were revived by the Fatimiyeen A’immat SA after the conquest of Imām Mu'izz SA.
The Religious Aspect
The Qarāmitah had menaced and impeded pilgrims from across muslim world travelling to Makkah al Mukarramah for Hajj. Banu 'Abbas were very weak to revolt against them and when they asked for a safe passage they were asked to pay heavy fines in doing so.
The muslim populace of Egypt was imposed with a heavy tax of 30,000 dinars (gold coins) for Haj and this burden was relieved by the intervention of the Fātimiyeen SA as they defeated the Qarāmitah, proliferating peace and harmony throughout the muslim world.
In the Fatemi conquest of Egypt, Festina lente was the measure of the care taken to ensure the success, as well as the slowness imposed by the size of the host with its baggage train of pack animals, herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, that it took the expedition three months, from February to May, to arrive at Alexandria.
When finally the Fatemi armies encamped at the entrance to Egypt, its multitude was compared to the pilgrimage at Arafat. Indeed, they came at Allah’s command for Allah’s purpose. Having lived in expectation of its arrival, the caretakers of the Ikhshīdid regime sent to request the terms of the amān, the safe-conduct offered by the Imām SA and his representative in return for their surrender. They were in no position to resist because of their precarious political situation.
In Egypt, the Fateh of Misr was commemorated with the issue of a gold coin, whose legends, inscribed on both sides within the three concentric circles that characterized the Fatimid dīnār, spelled out in succession the sequence of Allah ta'ala, His Rasool Muhammad SAW, his Wasi ʿAli SA and finally Imām al-Muʿizz Sa, His Imām and His Caliph.
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