Cloning is basically the copy of biological DNA in the nucleus. The DNA is extracted from the nucleus.
How is cloning done?
We begin with a parent's cell (shown in the figure as a gray circle) that contains the nucleus (red dot) that we want to copy. First we extract the desired nucleus from the parent's cell. Then, we obtain an egg cell (yellow circle) from another animal that is the same species as the one we wish to copy. We discard the egg's nucleus (green dot), and replace it with the desired nucleus.
There are two different types of cloning.
Reproductive and Therapeutic
Reproductive V.S Therapeutic cloning
For reproductive cloning, we transfer the cloned embryo into the womb of a surrogate mother and let the embryo develop. After the gestation period, the surrogate mother gives birth to the clone.
Where as, for therapeutic cloning, we halt the embryo's further development by removing some of the cells, which we cultivate in a lab. The resulting specialized cells are then available to treat diseases or injuries. Therapeutic cloning does not clone to make full humans, but rather is used for the stem cells of the embryo.
What are the benefits?
Here are reasons why you want to fund cloning.
- Defective genes could be eliminated. Genetic illnesses are not a leading killer of people today, but they could be in the near future. As humans continually reproduce, damage to their DNA lines increases. This creates mutations and defective genes, but these could be eliminated thanks to the cloning of healthy human cells.
- Another application is to create clones to build populations of endangered, or possibly even extinct, species of animals.
- Researchers hope to use embryonic stem cells, which have the unique ability to generate virtually all types of cells in an organism, to grow healthy tissues in the laboratory that can be used replace injured or diseased tissues.
- You could take the healthy therapeutic cells and replace the cells that have a disease with those.
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