Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".
Her husband Mr. Parks was an early activist in the effort to free the “Scottsboro Boys,” a celebrated case in the 1930′s. Together, Raymond and Rosa worked in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP’s) programs. He was an active member and she served as secretary and later youth leader of the local branch. At the time of her arrest, she was preparing for a major youth conference.
On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order to give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation.
When Martin Luther King, Jr. heard that Mrs. Parks had been arrested, he called a meeting at his church. A huge crowd gathered to hear what he had to say. People wanted things to change, but they were afraid. They did not want to be arrested or attacked. People shrugged their shoulders and said there was nothing they could do. It was just the way things were. Dr. King believed there was something they could do. They could boycott. They could refuse to ride the buses. That would cost the city a lot of money. The city and bus officials would not like that.