Immigration: If more penguins come into the population, the population will increase because other individuals are coming for more resources. Immigration occurs when there is more resources in a certain area and other individuals move to that area.
Emigration: If penguins emigrate, it would happen because of a lack of resources in their habitat. This would decrease the population. There are too few resources to support a higher population; therefore, some penguins have to move away to find more resources.
Births: If more Chinstrap Penguins have more offspring, the population will increase. There will be more births if there are more resources.
Deaths: If the penguins have a higher mortality rate, then the population will decrease. Death increases the amount of resources in an area.
Limited resources could cause the population to rise along the S-shaped curve of logistic growth because their resources become scarce and the population stops its exponential growth. This would show on the graph as the population flattening out. For example, if the krill population went down in the area they were living in, then the carrying capacity potential would go down because of lack of resources. Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals in a population based off of the resources available.
This graph shows logistic growth as slow growth, then it is followed by exponential growth. After the exponential growth, the resources become more limited and the population levels off close to the carrying capacity.
A density-dependent limiting factor would be a disease that killed off a large pecentage of the population. Another factor would be a leopard seal eating the penguins, also causing the population to decrease. The seal is the predator of the penguin, the prey.
A density-independent limiting factor would be ice melting because of global warming caused by humans, which would decrease population by giving the species less area to live on. One more factor would be falling rocks from cliffs hitting the penguins would cause the population to decrease. This would be caused by unusual weather.