La Historia de España! Michael Cotrotsios 8 Corazores

Spain -- An Ancient Trade Route

Many trade routes went through Ancient Spain. Spain was the ideal place to stop, trade, repair, and refuel. Though Spain was AMAZING, it was a very volatile country. Over 700 years, there was a lot of unrest and four main people tried to conquer Spain.

Invasions of Spain!

The first group of people to invade Spain were the Celtas. The Celtas took over the western portion of Spain with no challenge and they did it with very little weaponry! Then, the Iberos came in an took over the eastern half of Spain. The Celtas and the Iberos lived together, in the middle of Spain, and were called the Celtiberos! They inhabited Spain as an actual civilization.


  • The name of the Iberian Peninsula came from the Celtiberos.
  • Galicia still has influences of Celtic culture (bagpipes and language)

The Romans Invade

The next invasion of Spain came from the Romans. The Holy Roman Empire was constantly expanding and were extremely powerful. Spain provided no resistance during this invasion, but since Rome is far from Spain, the soldier had little supplies.

Segovia, an aqueduct, was designed to transport water from a remote source , usually by gravity. Merida, the Colosseum, was where gladiators fought others, and people watched.


Spain was dominated by the Visigoths, German Barbarians.


Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North Africa invaded the peninsula in 711 AD. The Moors are muslims who escaped persecution from Africa. They defeated the Visigoths and conquered nearly all of Spain.

La Reconquista

There was almost a continual fight between Christian kingdoms in North of peninsula and Muslims, who controlled the South. It lasted 300 años!

Rome vs. Muslims

Rome - Spread Christianity... Muslims - Kill Christians!

Fake Christians came about because people said yeah, whatever, sure, but they still practice their own religion in private.


Muslim called Spain “al-Andalus” in Arabic. Santiago: “Matamoros.” Mata = to kill, Moros = muslims. He was the patron saint of Spain... But, if you didn’t follow jesus they will kill you

Toledo -- The city of Tolerance

Jews, Christians, and Muslims all lived in peace, and nobody got killed.

El Cid

He was the héroe of the Reconquista.


In 1492, the Moors divided into small kingdoms and the last Moorish king was defeated in January.

Reyes Catolicos

(Catholic Kings) Fernando of Aragon was a very lazy king and his wife, Queen Isabel of Castilla did everything. There were no muslims. They were married in 1469, uniting the Christian kingdoms against the Moors. This ended the Reconquista by defeating the Moors in 1492.

The Spanish Inquisition

Muslims in Spain had to leave of become a Christian. Some of them got out of Spain, while many did not. Fake christians came about again, and Spain had no authority to enforce this law. The same happened with the Jews, in 1502. People were tortured and interrogated to make sure that they were changed to Christianity.

Gold Diggers

Gold diggers were people who married others to gain power or money. Juana, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabel, marries Felipe of the powerful Habsburg family. Juana was called crazy and legend has it that when Felipe died, she carried his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king.

Carlos 1

He ruled from 1516 - 1556, as the son of Juana and Felipe. He is a not well liked emperor and he changed his name to Charles V. Then, he conquered the Incas and the Aztecs, making Spain rich.

Road Warrior

Carlos V was known as "the road warrior." Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religious wars he was fighting. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. He then passed on his legacy to his son Felipe II.

Felipe the 2nd

Felipe II continued the war against Protestants and married Mary Tudor of England in 1554. They try to make an alliance, and a male heir from this marriage would make it official. The problem was that they could not have a baby boy, so Elizabeth becomes the queen. When Portugal was annexed, the Dutch declared independance from Spain, which started a war involving England. In 1588, Spain's Armada was defeated by England.

El Escorial

- Palace of Felipe II, It Contains the Monastery, Basilica, Library, and Royal Residence. After defeat of Armada in 1588, Felipe II spent most of his time here, until he died there in his bed overlooking the altar of the basilica in 1598.

La leyenda Negra : Black Legend

It was England and Portugal’s way of getting back at Spain, propaganda telling people to not go to Spain.

El Greco

- he was a painter from Greece who traveled to Spain, in search of work in the decoration of the el escorial. Felipe refused to hire him and el greco moved to Toledo.

More Habsburg Kings

Felipe II is succeeded by his son, the aptly named Felipe III (1598-1621). Felipe III dies and his son takes the throne. Felipe IV reigns from 1621-1665. Felipe IV reigns over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history: the Siglo de Oro.

The End of the Habsburgs

Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “El Hechizado” (“the Bewitched”). He died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain.



War of Spanish Succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. The war ended in 1713, with Spain losing to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today.


Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte removed from throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy.

Civil War!!!

General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy. Republican forces get very little help. War ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning.

The Bourbons

Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the Enlightenment.

Carlos IV

Grandson of Felipe V. He is totally incompetent. Dealing with Napoleon is hard.

Fernando VII

He was the son of Carlos IV, and returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon's troops. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. Died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel.

More Bourbon Troubles

Fernando VII dies without a male heir, leaving only his daughter, Isabel. The country is divided on the issue of a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas.” Isabel II reigns from 1833-1868. Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The “Glorious Revolution” removes Isabel II from power in 1868. An short-lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873.

Spanish Republic

The First Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873 and ends in 1874.

Even MORE Bourbon Troubles

The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875-1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902-1931. Alfonso XIII was born in 1885 (shortly after his father’s death). His mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim. In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco.

Alfonso XIII

Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.

Second Republic of Spain... And MORE!!

The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools. The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, faster.

Francisco Franco was the fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. He idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. He banned gender roles, religion, regionalism, and censorship.

After Franco

Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain. Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition. In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In 80’s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.


On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000. 2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. He won re-election in 2008.

La Familia Real

As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.

Created By
Michael Cotrotsios


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