Reform Movement By:Dakota S. Azalea I. Period 2

The beginnings of the reform movement was because of the Second Great Awakening which encouraged people to save their souls through good works and Transcedentalist which encouraged people to question society's rules and expectations.
Education needed a huge reform, before the movement there were few public schools, schools were overcrowded, teachers had limited education and pay, and most children did not go to school. The reform was led by Horace Mann which gave better and more public schools,teachers salaries increased, by 1850 most white boys attended free public schools, teaching programs was established, schools were established for blind and deaf, but South had no school for African Americans and North had schools for African Americans.
Abolition Reform Movemen was a major change. Before the reform South still had slaves and continued making money off of cotton and tobacco, but there was goal which was to end slavery. So Underground Railroads were network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitive slaves. In 1863, Lincoln delivers Emancipation Proclamation and in 1864 13th Admendment passed abolishing slavery. Leaders in this reform were William Lloyd, Fredrick Douglas, Quakers and more.
The Woman's Rights Movement was also a major event. Before the reform movement women could not vote or hold office, husbands could physically discipline their wives, fathers and husbands controlled women's money and property. The Seneca Convention was a meeting held in Seneca Falls, New York the women told their grievances (women not allowed to vote, no property rights, not allowed to practice professions like law and medicine) and as a result the Declaration of Sentiments was written listing the complaints women had and their goals for equality. After that, New York gives women control over property and wages, Massachusetts and Indiana pass more liberal divorce laws, Elizabeth Blackwell starts her own hospital and women eventually was give the right to vote. Leaders in this movement was Abigail Adams, Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott and more.
Prison and Mental Health Reform was quite interesting. Before the movement jailmates were in chains and lived in cages, children were jailed with adult prisoners, mentally ill were treated as prisoners, and insufficient mental hospitals and the reform was led by Dorothea Dix who helped make new asylums built, state government stopped placing debtors in prison, established juvenile justice systems for children and cruel punishment was outlawed.
The Temperance reform movement had a main goal, encourage Americans to stop drinking because they felt alcohol abuse led to problems such as family violence,poverty and criminal behavior.
Herman Melville was an author and poet during American Renaissance period.He was born August 1,1819 was born in New York, New York. Herman wrote the novel "Moby Dick" . Moby Dick is a novel based on both Melville's years of experience aboard whale ships and the real-life disaster of the Essex whale ship, a sperm whale attacked and destroyed the ship, but didn't kill all crew members they adrift in their small whale boats.
Emily Dickinson was an American poet born in December 10,1830 in Amherst, Massachusetts. One of her best poems is "Hope" is the thing with feathers, which is about a bird reacting to hardship. She is also known for Because I could not stop for Death, which is a speaker communicating from beyond the grave, describing her journey with Death personified from life to afterlife.
Gilbert Stuart was an painter born in Saunderstown, Rhode Island Colony,British America on December 3,1755. He is known for the painting of the founding fathers, which is a painting of John Adams,Ben Franklin,Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington,

http://www.ushistory.org/us/26d.asp

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