THE MEDITERRANEAN SPAIN DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD CULTURES

DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTION AND FOOD CULTURE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN

FISHING SKILLS WERE DEVELOPED
  • AGRICULTURE BEGAN IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION APPROXIMATELY 1000 BCE
  • FARMERS BEGAN CULTIVATING CEREALS, PARTICULARLY WHEAT AND BARLEY, AND LEGUMES
  • HAD AN IDEAL CLIMATE FOR CROP GROWING
  • THEY KEPT SHEEP, GOATS AND PIGS FOR DOMESTICATING
  • FISHING SKILLS SOON DEVELOPED AND FISH BECAME IMPORTANT FOOD SOURCES

REGIONAL INFLUENCES ON FOOD PRODUCTION IN SPAIN

  • SITUATED ON THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
  • SPAIN IS THE LARGEST COUNTRY ON THE PENINSULA, MAKES UP 85 PER CENT OF LAND MASS
  • INFLUENCED BY A NUMBER OF INVADING FORCES
  • NATIVES OF THE FERTILE CRESCENT ARRIVED CALLED THE PHOENICIANS, THEY WERE GREAT TRADERS
  • GRAIN PRODUCTION IN THE AREA INCREASED DUE TO THE GREEKS MOVING INTO THE COASTAL REGIONS
  • THE GREEKS TAUGHT AND INFLUENCED THEM TO FISH AND BECOMES A KEY PART OF THE SPANISH CUISINE
IBERIAN PENINSULA
  • THE ROMANS ARRIVED IN SPAIN AT HE END OF THE SECOND CENTURY BCE
  • ROMANS ALSO DELELOPED METHODS OF FOOD PRESERVATION, SALTING AND AIR-DRYING FISH WHICH ENABLED THE FISHING INDUSTRY TO FLOURISH
  • ROMANS ALSO INTRODUCED STONED FRUITS, SUCH AS APRICOTS AND PEACHES, AND MELONS AND LEMONS INTO SPAIN
  • THE MOORS ARRIVED IN SPAIN IN 711 CE WHO ARE FROM NORTH AFRICA
  • THEY REMAINED IN SPAIN FOR 7000 YEARS AND HAD A GREAT INFLUENCE ON THE CUISINE AND CULTURE
  • THEY INTRODUCED HONEY, CITRUS FRUIT, ALMONDS AND SPICES, INCLUDING CUMIN AND SAFFRON INTO SPANISH CUISINE

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

  • COUNTRIES SURROUNDING THE MEDITERRANEAN, INCLUDING SPAIN THAT HAVE WARM TEMPERATURES
  • OFTEN EXPERIENCE DROUGHT IN THE SUMMER DUE TO THIS AND HIGH RAINFALL IN THE WINTER
  • THESE CONDITIONS ARE IDEAL FOR GROWING GRAPES AND OLIVES IN BECAME IMPORTANT AGRICULTURE FOR SPAIN
DROUGHT IN SPAIN
  • THE PYRENEES MOUNTAINS RUN ACROSS THE NORTH OF THE COUNTRY AND DIVIDE SPAIN FROM FRANCE
  • THESE VALLEYS HAVE A TYPICAL MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE AND HAVE RICH SOILS

RELIGION

  • IN THE 1400'S, CHRISTIAN FORCES EVENTUALLY TOOK CONTROL OF SPAIN
  • MUSLIMS AND JEWS WERE FORCED TO CONVERT TO CATHOLICISM AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH INTRODUCED MORE THAN 200 DAYS OF FASTING AS A MEANS OF ABSOLVING THEMSELVES OF SIN
  • DURING FASTING, MEAT WAS REPLACED BY SALTED COD AND BANNED FROM EATING A WIDE RANGE OF OTHER FOODS
  • TODAY, THE MAJORITY OF THE SPANISH POPULATION IS CATHOLIC ALTHOUGH OTHER RELIGIONS ARE PRACTICED SUCH AS ISLAM, JUDISM, PROTESTANTISM AND HINDUISM

TRADITIONAL FOODS IN SPAIN

  • THE CUISINE HAS BEEN SHAPED BY THE PHOENICIANS, THE GREEKS, ROMANS AND MOORS
  • OLIVE OIL IS A KEY INGREDIENT IN SPANISH COOKING
  • SPAIN HAS OVER 300 MILLION OLIVE TREES UNDER CULTIVATION
  • RICE WAS INTRODUCED BY THE MOORS AN IS HIGHLY PRIZED FOR IT'S PLUMP GRAINS THAT STAY FIRM DURING COOKING AND USED IN PAELLAS
  • PAELLA IS MADE FROM RICE, ONION, GARLIC, TOMATOES, CHORIZO, SHELLFISH, PEAS AND BEANS
  • HISTORIANS SUGGEST THAT PAELLA WAS ORIGINALLY MADE FROM THE LEFTOVERS OF BANQUETS HELD BY MOORISH KINGS
TRADITIONAL PAELLA
  • ANOTHER FAMOUS DISH, GAZPACHO WHICH IS A COLD SOUP WITH A TOMATO AND GARLIC BASE WAS DEVELOPED IN SOUTHERN SPAIN
  • PREPARED BY MIXING STALE BREAD, OIL, GARLIC AND VINEGAR TOGETHER WITH A LIQUID
  • SPANISH ARE FAMOUS FOR JAMON SERRANO WHICH IS A DRY-CURED HAM
JAMON SERRANO
  • OTHER IMPORTANT INGREDIENTS USED IN SPANISH CUISINE INCLUDE CHORIZO SAUSAGE, SEAFOOD, CHEESE, EGGS, GARLIC, BEANS AND BREAD
  • CHURROS IS ANOTHER FAMOUS DISH MADE AND EATEN BY THE SPANISH

MEAL STRUCTURE

  • LUNCH IS THE MAIN MEAL OF THE DAY
  • START DAY WITH LIGHT BREAKFAST WITH COFFEE AND PASTRY
  • LUNCH IS EATEN BETWEEN 2 AND 4PM AND INCLUDES SEVERAL COURSES STARTING OFF WITH A SOUP OR SALAD
  • THIS IS FOLLOWED BY A MEAT OR FISH AND FINISHED WITH A CAKE OR SPANISH FLAN
  • SPANISH EAT DINNER LATE IN THE EVENING
  • NORMALLY A LIGHT MEAL OF SALAD OR TAPAS
A SPAIN FIESTA AFTER LUNCH
MARKET FOOD BARCELONA

SMOKY VEGITARIAN SPANISH RICE

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 1/2 CUPS MEDIUM GRAIN RICE
  • 1/12 CUPS CAMPBELLS REAL STOCK VEGETABLE
  • 1/4 TEASPOON GROUND TUMERIC
  • 1 TABLESPOON EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL
  • 1 SAMLL RED ONION, HALVED, THINLY SLICED
  • 1 LARGE RED CAPSICUM CUT INTO 3CM PEICES
  • 1 LARGE GREEN CAPSICUM CUT INTO 3CM PEICES
  • 150 GREEN BEANS, TRIMMED, HALVED DIAGONALLY
  • 2 GARLIC CLOVES, FINELY CHOPPED
  • 1 1/2 TEASPOONS SMOKED PAPRIKA
  • 3/4 CUP FROZEN PEAS
  • 1 CUP MIXED OLIVES
  • 1/4 CUP CHOPPED FRESH FLAT-LEAF PARSLEY LEAVES
  • 2 TABLESPOONS LEMON JUICE
  • LEMON WEDGES TO SERVE

METHOD

  • Place rice, stock, 1 cup water and turmeric in a medium heavy-based saucepan over high heat. Stir to combine. Cover. Bring to the boil. Reduce heat to low. Simmer for 10 to 12 minutes or until liquid is absorbed. Remove from heat. Fluff rice with fork. Set aside, covered, for 5 minutes.
  • Meanwhile, heat oil in a large, deep frying pan over medium-high heat. Add onion. Cook, stirring, for 5 minutes or until softened. Add capsicum and beans. Cook, stirring occasionally, for 5 minutes or until just tender. Add garlic and paprika. Cook for 1 minute.
  • Add rice mixture, peas and olives to the pan. Toss mixture over heat until peas are heated through. Remove from heat. Add parsley and lemon juice. Season with salt and pepper. Toss gently to combine. Serve with lemon wedges.

Credits:

Created with images by WeVe1 - "SPAIN" • ConstantinWied - "IMG_0831" • somiz - "110603-spain_DSC1635" • secrettenerife.co.uk - "Livin' la Vida Loca" • sky_hlv - "Laguna del Portil (Huelva)" • www.twin-loc.fr - "https://www.twin-loc.fr La Pointe de Grave depuis Royan - Gironde Garonne Charente-Maritime - Image Picture Photography" • faul - "Plant Hatch on the Altamaha River" • Efraimstochter - "cemetery church christian" • Vallausa - "Seville Food 029" • ARLOUK - "paella kitchen rice" • martalino - "Churros at Hot Chocolate at San Gines" • katiebordner - "jamón serrano con melón" • Taken - "market fruit barcelona" • secrettenerife.co.uk - "Canaries Day" • Taken - "market fruit barcelona"

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