Canto 27 Bella, Taiga, ismar

Bolgia: 8 Circle: 8

The Sinners:

The souls within this circle are "the evil counselors". These souls are also referred to as the "fraudulent counselors". These sinners abuse the gifts of God and steal his virtues for low purposes.

QUOTE WITH CONTRAPASSO:

"And as they stole from God in their lives and worked by hidden ways, so are they stolen from sight and hidden in the great flames which are their own guilty consciences. And as in most instances at least, they sinned by glibness of tongue, so are the flames made into a fiery travesty of tongues."

"When they found/their way up to the tip, imparting to it/the same vibration given them in their passage/over the tongue of the concealed sad spirit,/we heart it say 'O you at home I aim/...I too was of those hills between Urbino/and the fold from which the Tiber springs to birth." (Inferno, XXVII:15-30)

KEY CHARACTERS & ILLUSIONS:

Guido da Montefeltro: a Lord of Romagna & one of the sinners that Dante meets and talks to about Romagna. He & Dante also talk about Montefeltro's life and how Boniface VIII convinces him to sin.

Ulysses: After telling his story to Dante & Virgil, he is silent, so Virgil condescends to let him leave.

Sicilian bull: a metal bull was used as an instrument of torture in the sixth century B.C. Victims were placed inside the metal bull and then roasted to death.

the Great Priest: another name for Boniface VIII, so called as Pope.

Why are these allusions presenT? How do they function?

Ulysses is present in the beginning of the canto, and his telling of his story to Dante and Virgil helps the transition into their conversation with Guido da Montefeltro. The conversation held with Montefeltro takes up the remainder of the canto, and it allows Dante to gain a lot of knowledge on Romagna and be updated on his hometown. This knowledge allows Dante to relax and gain information on both Romagna and the life of Boniface VIII. The Sicilian bull is mentioned in the beginning of the canto, and the inclusion of this bull into the canto emphasizes the danger and intensity of this bulge and it provides imagery to the reader so they have a deeper understanding of this level. Boniface VIII is mentioned yet again; however, this time he is referred to as the "Great Priest", and this emphasizes his importance and nobility throughout the poem.

Anomalies/Abnormalities/Shifts:

In the beginning of Canto XXVII, Dante Alighieri includes the Sicilian bull as a descriptor of this level of Hell. He has not previously used an animal to provide imagery to the levels of Hell, but for the first time, Dante states "As the Sicilian bull-that brazen spit/which bellowed first (and properly enough/with the lament of him whose file had tuned it-/...the mournful words were changed into its language."(Inferno, XXVII:7-15)

Literary Devices:

Personification: "a strange and muffled roar rose from the single tip to which it burned." (Inferno, XXVII: 5-6)

Rhyme: "we heard it say: "O you at who I aim/my voice, and who were speaking Lombard, saying: 'Go now, I ask no more,' just as I came-" (Inferno, XXVII: 19-21)

Personification: "The city that so valiantly withstood/the French, and raised a mountain of their dead,/feel the Green Claws again." (Inferno, XXVII: 42-44)

Imagery: "He carried me to Minos: eight times round/his scabby back the monster coiled his tail,/then biting it in rage he pawed the ground/and cried: 'This one is for the thievish fire!'/And, as you see, I am lost accordingly,/grieving in heart as I go in this attire."(Inferno, XXVII: 121-126)

Modern Day Application:

The sinners within this canto are those who abuse the gifts of God and steal his virtues for low purposes. Because God is constantly forgiving people, people in modern day will take advantage of this and commit sins because they know he will always forgive them. God also gives the gift of kindness, so many people may be kind of people for their own benefit knowing that it will get them ahead and benefit them in the end. In modern day, people will take advantage of these gifts of God and use them to their own personal advantage rather than doing things out of the goodness of their hearts.

Works Cited:

http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/inferno/section11.rhtml?scrlybrkr

http://www.shmoop.com/inferno/canto-xxvii-summary.html

Credits:

Created with images by Hans - "embers glow wood" • skeeze - "fire burn house training" • LoggaWiggler - "fire burn hell"

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