The Age of Inquiry by Karyssa gilleland

The Renaissance

Sculptures influenced by the classical greek and roman era were common in the renaissance. Artists such as Michelangelo created various sculptures which often looked realistic and were very detailed.
Literature was also at an all time high during the renaissance. The most notable was machiavelli and his writing to gain acceptance from the royal family on how to rule. In this book he says a good ruler is strict and harsh. During the Renaissance, scholars embraced not only the literature but also what they perceived to be the values of the classical past, and some took a generally negative view of the period between Roman domination of Europe and their own day. Tschen-Emmons, James B. "Renaissance." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
Mona Lisa is one of the most notable pieces of art to come from the Renaissance. Painted by Italian artist Leonardo Da Vinci, who is a good example of a well rounded artist. This is because he was an engineer, architect, draftsman, sculptor, and painter. "Mona Lisa (Da Vinci)." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
Some Italian cities, like Genoa and Venice, grew rich on trade with the east, especially with the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world. Some cities in Italy were independent on feudal lords or enjoyed generous relationships with them, which allowed them to develop their economies, political structure, and culture along lines more in keeping with their needs and interests.
Architects combined styles without coherence and exposed parts of buildings that were normally hidden. The Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris was one such structure. The anatomy of the building—the pipes, ducts, tubes, and support structure—was exposed, which forced the viewer to think about architecture. "European Art." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.

The Protestant Reformation

The protestant reformation was started by corruption in the church. People started to notice this when they had to pay for indulgences. When the people grew unhappy, radicals knew they had to take action, these people would later be called heretics and punished for speaking out.
the Protestant reformation started initially when Martin Luther stapled thesis of all of the corruption going on in the church to the doors.
the invention of the print and press made it so everyone was aware of what was going on. Multiple copies of something could be made in minutes, instead of years. This invention progressed society as a whole and fueled the protestant reformation
The Jews were mainly neutral in the protestant reformation. At first, Martin Luther praised the Jews for this. He said he understood why they didn't want to be part of a faith that was corrupt. When the Catholic church lost power, Martin Luther attacked Jews for not converting.
John Calvin realized the issues of the church and then discovered Calvinism. In his new faith, he claimed that where you go is predetermined by God and it doesn't matter what you do in your life.

THe COunter reformation

The Church later regained power by calling those who spoke out heretics. Those accused of heresy would be tortured or killed. Essentially, the church instilled fear to regain power so people wouldn't convert to a new religion. This was part of the counter reformation
missionaries would travel to reinforce their ideas and beliefs which would help strengthen the Catholic church. Missionaries were a big part in the counter reformation because they couldn't accuse people of heresy for converting so they had to take a more gentle approach to securing their beliefs
The Catholic church also made Martin Luther recant his statements with the threat of being accused of heresy, He did so out of fear of being tortured or killed. This was a key aspect of the counter reformation because it showed the ruthlessness of the church at that time.
The effect of the counter reformation included antisemitism. This was because Martin Luther expected the Jews to convert and he believed the only reason why they hadn't was the Christians hostility toward the Jews. The Jews had always believed Christianity to be a faulty religion and the actions of the Christians only proved it to be true
The pope brought together the council of Trent. This council met together in 1545 and discussed the critiques brought on them by reformers. The council met together until 1563 changing much of the catholic doctrine. Blackwell, Amy. "Counter-Reformation." World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy, ABC-CLIO, 2017

The scientific revolution

the Scientific revolution started when people sought out more secular knowledge. Among this was human anatomy. One of the early findings on human anatomy came from Galen, who dissected on animals such as pigs because it was illegal to dissect humans. This is an example of how the scientific revolution reflected a quest for knowledge.
Andreas Vesalius was allowed to dissect humans from the gallows, and he drew accurate anatomical structures such as the circulatory system as well as the lymphatic system was identified as a separate system at this time. Not only that, but the valves in veins now a distinct purpose. This was an innovative discovery at the time but it took a century for Galen's influence to fade. "Andreas Vesalius." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017
Nicolas Copernicus discovered our solar system is heliocentric, which means the sun is in the middle of the solar system not earth. The Catholic Church didn't accuse him of heresy however they did ban his major work after his death. Hutchinson, Jennifer. "Nicholas Copernicus." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017
Charles Darwin worked on the theory that man was still fighting against man for survival. He came to this conclusion after reading Thomas Malthus' "An Essay on the Principals of Population". This theory was truly revolutionary because it was noted that competition existed between other species mainly when talking about food but this societal theory made people think about evolution. "Charles Darwin." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017
A leading figure of the scientific revolution, Galileo applied mathematics to the workings of nature, described force as a mechanical agent, and supported the reemerging heliocentric cosmology of Nicholas Copernicus. This was an important theme in the scientific revolution because people would build off of findings from previous studies. They found that innovation of scientific discovery was not complete and they progressed until they believed it was. "Galileo." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 20 Feb. 2017.


The age of absolutism was a key aspect of European history. This was when Monarchs rose to power and successfully rose to power of their state to themselves.
One example of how monarchs use their power to gain territory. He was known as a "universal spider". He acquired Roussillon, Provence, Anjou, and Maine by the time he died in 1483, Brittany was the only major territory in France outside of his control. Cleugh, James, Chart Royal, 1970; Kendall, Paul M., Louis XI: The Universal Spider, 1986.
Catherine the II was known as Catherine the Great. For more than thirty years, she ruled Russia. Catherine the Great was successful and sophisticated. She convened a meeting to implement new ideals in Russia that surprised many. She wanted to innovate Russia using her own moral compass. "Catherine Ii." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
Charles XII was the ruler of Sweden from 1697-1718. His death ended the short lived period of absolutism in Sweden, having no children, he had no heirs. "Charles Xii." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
From 1629 to 1640, King Charles I of England ruled without calling the British Parliament into session. This period is known as the Eleven Years' Tyranny, or the personal rule. Charles' main problem was that of any English king who tried to rule without Parliament: the difficulty of raising money. The idea that Parliament alone could raise new taxes was deeply ingrained in English law and custom.What brought the Eleven Years' Tyranny to an end, however, was not the English opposition but Charles' need for money to fight the Bishops' Wars against the rebellious subjects in his other kingdom, Scotland. Hoping to raise money for a large army, Charles summoned what became known as the Short Parliament, which met on April 13, 1640. Kishlansky, Mark, A Monarchy Transformed: Britain 1603-1714, 1996; Sharpe, Kevin, The Personal Rule of Charles I, 1992.

The age of enlightenment

The age of enlightenment was different than the other periods of time because it was the age of philosophy. The age of enlightenment was the age of social contracts and theories, knowledgeable people created genius ideas on why society acts the way it does. John Locke had many theories on society, the most notable is his book "two treatises of government" "John Locke." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
Thomas Hobbes was considered one of the founding fathers of modern political philosophy. Thomas Hobbes had little faith in humanity and believed monarchy was what was needed to control the unruly mass of human kind. "Thomas Hobbes." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
In Crito by Plato, Socrates is awaiting execution on the charges of treason. Now, Socrates is charged and is to be punished by execution. He could get away with exile, but chooses to be executed anyway. Why? Because he believes that people agree to the laws of the environment they put themselves in. He knew the laws and didn't follow them, therefore he believed he should've been executed. This changed the way people thought about society and government. Stockdale, Nancy L. "Plato." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
David Hume used common sense and personal experiences as a base of his philosophy. He said "reason is and ought to be the slave of the passions and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them." "David Hume." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
John Rawls believed that people's destinies are open and free to change and that all humans should be free to choose their path for the future. A strong believer in the sanctity of political rights and civil liberties, he contended that society has the duty to provide all individuals with equal opportunities for development and for the attainment of happiness, unhindered by racial, religious, or social constraints of any sort.Valente, Jose . "John Rawls." American History, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.


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