Chapter 8 Biology By: Joshua Muroff

Watson and Crick is named after the doctors picured. Before I go more in depth here is a elementary explanation through a video https://youtu.be/Bh5_e5A52gY. That was cool right!

Before we get into it unfouranately Rosland Franklin did not get her fair share of credit for helping to discover this structural type of DNA. She died before she they received the Noble prize and deceased people don't get Nobel prizes. SORRY Rosland Franklin!😢

What they discovered was a double helix. That is a type of DNA strand they were the first to be able comprehend and understand what this is and the purpose of it. That is a big deal because that lead to the discovery of something called Down syntdrome because we understand a double helix we can under stand how Down syndrome happens. But that is a conversation for another day.

Watch this introduction into Chargaff's Rules then I will explain.

It states that adenine and thymine are paired and cytosine and guanine are paired and it cannot be vice verse because if they switched hydrogen bonding wouldn't possible vice verse. This shows that we can read the nucleotides sequential order. The proportion of each adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine levels go as follows 30.9% Adenine, 29.4% Thymine, 19.9% Guanine, and 19.8% cytosine.

These are the bonds drawn out between thymine, and adenine. As well as the bond between guanine, and cytosine.

They use a hydrogen bond to stick together they do not bond chemically. Then C and G only go together and A only pairs to T.

This goes with DNA base pairing. A little long, you can watch it at home, it is 1:48 about.

What is a chromosome? Your question answered now

Chromosomes are found in nucleotides and chromosomes are tiny but serve a very important function! They hold all of our DNA. Chromosomes make up who and what you are. When we have too many or few we can have some problems.

Karyotype is a photo of chromosomes and this lets us see what is wrong with some people genetically.

To get a Karyotype photo we must isolate, and stain the chromosomes under a microscope. Usually the chromosomes are taken from white blood cells then after the picture we arrange the chromosomes by size. There are twenty-two pairs autosomes and the twenty third are the sex chromosomes which make a chromosomes.
DNA replication is when DNA stands splits in two. Then the strands act as a template. Then biological processes start and then they duplicate and then we have a new DNA double helix

This is DNA replication animation process

Radiation damages DNA. We see this in many forms like skin cancer or getting cancer from X-Ray radiation. The radiation damages the DNA making the hydrogen bonds split apart leading to damaged DNA strands.

This is a cool Tedx video in DNA getting damaged but it is a little long good to watch at home to grasp the concept.

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