Postwar uncertainty the horrors of the world war 1 shattered the enlightenment. In the postwar people began asking questions beliefs. Some found answers in the new scientific developments, which challenged the way people looked at the world. Many enjoyed the convenience of technological improvements in the transportation and communication. As society became more open women demanded more rights and young people adopted new values. meanwhile, unconventional styles and ideas in literature, philosophy and music reflected the uncertain times.
A new revolution in science. The ideas of albert einstein and sigmund freud and enormous impact on the 20th century. these thinkers were part of a scientific revolution as important as the brought about centuries earlier by copernicus and galileo. Impact of Einstein's theory of relativity german born physicist albert einstein offered startling new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter. scientists had found that light travels exactly the same speed no matter what direction it moves in relation to earth. influence of freudian psychology the ideas of austrian physician sigmund freud were as revolutionary as einstein's. A flawed u.s economy despite several weakness in the u.s economy caused by business. the fact that many americans were buying less. by 1929 american factories were turning out nearly half of the world's goods.
Fascism rises in Europe many democracies including the united states Britian and france remained strong despite the economic crisis caused by the Great depression. however millions of people lost faith in democratic government in response, they turned to an extreme system of government called fas-times and restore order and national pride. their message attracted people who felt frustrated and angered by the peace treaties that followed world war 1 and by he great depression. they was also a new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. unlike communism, fascism had no clearly defined theory or program. they preached an extreme form of nationalism, or loyalty to one's several idea's. fascists believed the nations must struggle- peaceful states were doomed to conquered they pledged loyalty to an authoritarian leader.
fascism rises in europe, many democracies including the united states britain and france. remained strong despite the economic crisis, caused by the great depression. however, millions of people lost faith in democratic government. their message attracted many people, who felt frustrated and angered by the peace treaties that followed world war 1 and by the great depression. Fascism's rise in italy, was a new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to it's leader. In some way's fascism was similar to communism. both systems were ruled by dictators who allowed only their own political parties. Both denied individual rights. In both the state was supreme.Duce's leadership, he sought to control the economy by allying the fascists with the industries and large landowners.
hitler rises to power in germany, when mussolini became dictator of italy in the mid 1920's adolf hitler was a little known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment when world war 1 broke out, hitler found a new beginning. he volunteered for the german army and was awarded the iron cross, a medal for bravery. The rise of the nazis, at the end of the war, hitler settled in munich. In 1919 he joined a tiny right-wing political group this group shared his belief that germany had to overturn the treaty of versailles and combat communism. the group later named itself, the national socialist german worker's party, called nazi for short. they also set up a private militia called the storm troopers or brown shirts. Hitler becomes chancellor
aggressors invade nations, by the mid-1930's germany and italy seemed bent on military conquest. the major democracies- and the united states were distracted by economic problems at home and longed to remain at peace. with the world moving toward war many nations pinned their hopes for peace, on the league of nations. following a period of reform and progress in the 1920's japan fell under military rule. japan seeks an empire, during the 1920's the japanese government became more democratic. in 1922 japan signed an international treaty agreeing to respect china's borders. in 1928 it signed the kellogg-briand pact renouncing war. it's constitution put strict limits on the powers of the prime minister and the cabinet. most, importantly leaders had little control over the armed forces. military leaders reported only to the emperor japan invades manchuria they invested heavily in china's northeast province, it was an area rich an iron and coal. in 1931 the japanese army seized manchuria, despite objections from the japanese. the army then set up a puppet government. japanese engineers and technicians began arriving in large numbers to build mines and factories.
european aggressors on the march. the leagues failure to stop the japanese encouraged european fascists to prevent aggression of their own. hitler and mussolini again tested the will of the democracies of europe in the spanish civil war. spain had been a monarchy until 1931, when a republic was declared. the government run by liberals and socialists, held office amid many crisis. i july 1936 army leaders favoring a fascist-style government. joined general francisco franco in a revolt. thus began a civil was that dragged on for three years. they both sent troops and tanks and airplanes to help franco's forces that would called the nationalists. the armed forces of the republicans, as supporters. the western democracies remained neutral. only the soviet union sent equipment and advisers. an international brigade of volunteers fought on the republican side. early in 1939. resistance collapsed. franco became spain's fascist dictator.
japan seeks an empire during the 1920's the japanese government became more democratic. in 1922 japan signed the kellogg-briand pact renouncing war. japan's system had several weaknesses, however, its constitution put strict limits on the powers of the prime minister and the cabinet. most importantly, leaders had little control over the armed forces, military leaders reported only to the emperor. as long as japan remained prosperous, the civilian government kept power. but when the great depression struck in 1929. many japanese blamed the government. the military leaders gained support and soon won control of the country. keeping emperor hirohito as head of state won popular support for the army leaders who ruled in his name. like hitler and mussolini japans militarists were extreme nationalists. the empire would provide japan with raw materials and markets for its goods. it would also give japan room for its rising population. japanese businesses had invested heavily in china's northeast province.