The 14th amendment prohibits any former Confederate leader from holding state or federal offices. This in turn would allow blacks' political and economic rights to increase as former Confederate leaders primarily aimed to limit their rights. In addition, the Report of The Joint Committee doesn't allow Southern senators and representatives to take their seat in Congress, limiting southerner's political rights in an effort to ultimately establish civil rights. This increased the division between the North and South in that it gave the South less representation in the Congress, which allowed Northerners to try to establish civil rights for blacks.
This picture represents the author's response to the Compromise of 1877, a deal between the two political parties in which Hayes was elected as president if the Republicans withdrew their federal troops in the South and supported the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad. Although this compromise led to the end of the Reconstruction period in that the lack of a military presence in the South substantially prevented the establishment of civil rights in turn for Hayes as president, Thomas Nast is conveying the idea that this was a truce rather than a compromise. The legacy of the Reconstruction was the industrialization of the South and the North's failure in establishing civil rights.
To conclude, the North's attempts in establishing civil rights within the South increased the division between the North and South in that Southern representation in government was limited and Southerners disapproved of the idea of adjusting to the improvement of the rights of freedmen. The Reconstruction Period correlates with the Civil Rights Movement in 1950's and 1960's because in both occurrences, a multitude of people fought without violence for the establishment of civil rights such as voting rights. However, it differed in that the reconstruction failed to achieve this goal whereas the Civil Rights Movement did not.