Egypt - One Nation, Many Changes: Quality of Life By Jamie, Nicole, and erin

Total Population: 95,116,505

Birth Rate: Births ➗ Population ✕ 1000 = 25.794 births/thousand

Death Rate: Deaths ➗ Population ✕ 1000 = 5.944 deaths/ thousand

Natural Increase Rate: Birth Rate - Death Rate ➗ 1000 = 19. 217

Net Migration Rate: Immigration Rate - Emigration Rate ➗ 1000= - 0.449 people/thousand

Population Growth Rate: Natural Increase Rate + Net Migration Rate= 18.768

Identify the phase of demographic transition the country is currently in:

Egypt is in the late transition stage of the demographic transition.

Describe how the population is influenced:

Are there any population policies in place? If so, what are they?

The population policy has been overlooked in Egypt for the past few years due to the post-revolutionary chaos. However, when Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi took over power in Egypt he appointed Egypt's first population minister, Hala Yousef, a respected doctor. The government is focusing on improving family-planning services, as well as encouraging girls to stay in school longer. The government is also piloting cash transfers to particularly poor families so they don’t have to rely on their children to provide potential incomes.

What conditions are affecting population growth/change? (Why is it growing/changing?)

Most of Egypt's land is uninhabitable due to its desert climate deeming the land unsafe for humans to live in. Egypt is the most populated Arab country, however, most of its land is unlivable meaning its population is concentrated along the Nile river; resulting in a densely populated area. This results in many poor sectors of the city. Another condition that affects the population boom in Egypt is increased medical care. This has resulted in the infant mortality rate falling from 113 babies per 1000 women in 1980 to 17.9 per 1000 women. Also, there has been a major increase in life expectancy, from 42 in the 1960s, to 71 now. Economics plays a major role in Egypt's population growth. Egypt's experienced a sharp decline in their per capita income, as well as the amount of goods and services produced. The per capita income is almost less that $46 a month. Egypt's Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) has reported that Egypt's economic growth rate has increased by 2%, whereas the poverty rate has increased to 26.3%. As the need for more household income increases, a need for more children also increases since they represent a source of additional income once they start work.

How does this affect the wellbeing of the country? Consider relationships within and between other countries.

Egypt's small portion of inhabitable land has resulted in a large population confined to a small area. This means a high demand for jobs, food, healthcare, education, etc. Egypt’s wellbeing has clearly been affected as proven by the high unemployment, and poverty rates. Egypt has had a fairly unstable relationship with foreign powers, mainly at fault of three-decade long leadership of Hosni Mubarak. Egypt has struggled to rebuild relations as it has made the transition to a democracy in a particularly unrestful political era of the Egypt and the surrounding countries. Egypt's agriculture is also suffering as a result of overpopulation. Each year, Egypt is losing about 60 000 acres of workable land due to construction and soil erosion. This not only creates holes in the economy but also affects international trade, seeing as the more land they lose, the more potential crop exports they also lose. In addition, due to the high unemployment rates, Egypt could see a surge in their emigration rate. Because many graduates are unable to find jobs in their profession, they may choose to leave their country to find a job. This means that educated, young, valuable men are leaving Egypt in order to benefit other countries. This may also lead to higher immigration rates for some countries.

Cairo, Egypt

Describe one city of your choice

The ancient city of Cairo is a city full of physical contrast, the ancient pyramids of Giza stand at the southwestern edge of the city, while the modern landmarks of hotels, highrises, and apartment buildings overlook the Nile River. The city is brimming with historical landmarks and boast historical architecture from different time periods going back hundreds of years. Cairo is Africa's largest city, as well as the largest city in the Arab world. Downtown Cairo, whose center is the plaza of Maydan Tahrir, consists of shops, restaurants, hotels, and other commercial establishments, as well as museums, gardens, and art galleries. To the east of central Cairo is the walled medieval section of the city known as Islamic Cairo, which includes poorer residential districts, historic architecture dating back over a thousand years, and the Khan Khalili marketplace. Northeast of Cairo's central district is the wealthy residential suburb of Heliopolis. In the course of its thousand-year history, it has remained the capital of the great Egyptian dynasties of the Middle Ages, and today, a modern industrialized city.

What is the city’s population (20-50 years ago, present, projected 20-50 years)?

Population 2017: 9.5 million

Population 1990: 9.89 million

Projected Population: 24.5 million

Where does the city fall within the core-periphery model?

Cairo can be classified as a periphery country

How has the city changed over time?

  • Cairo has seen rapid growth over the past few decades, at fault of the huge gap between birth and death rate.
  • Cairo struggles with many health issues including, malnutrition, bacterial infection, and air pollution
  • Cairo has become one of the targets for Islamic extremists seeking to destabilize the country's government.
  • Cairo has been split up into different residential sectors based on wealth and religion
  • With a rapid increase in the cities population, the government has been working to accommodate by building new, planned suburbs

What layout/plan does your city use? Is it a liveable city?

Cairo has a unique layout that follows the path of its historic past. The city consists of three old, densely populated, poor neighborhoods. These neighborhoods surround the modern, westernized core of downtown. The north and west peripheries of the city have grown dramatically in the last two decades, producing significant population growth and commercial expansion. In the majority of the city quarters, commercial and industrial workshops are scattered between houses. Cairo’s layout reflects its rich and diverse history and the cities push into the modern westernized world. Cairo’s push to modernize the city includes many future plans to make it more accessible, and improve the quality of life for its citizens to aid in making it a livable city.

Cairo Slums
Wealthy Commercialized Sector

What challenges does this city currently face?

The city of Cairo faces many challenges. Somes of these include the large sectors of the poor. The majority of Cairo’s population does not have access to proper health care. Cairo has a large informal housing sector, and many of these structures are not serviced by utilities. In addition, many citizens are struggling to make ends meet. Most have two or more jobs, and many choose to go overseas to work and send money home. The poorest have to send their children to work as early as the age of eight or nine, in sweatshops to produce manufactured goods. The city is also facing air pollution problems. Thousands of old vehicles without government regulation of emotion levels crowd the cities. In addition, the cities factories create even more environmental hazards, leading to emissions that exceed internationally acceptable standards.

Describe the [economic] condition of your chosen country:

What factors (political, economic, social, environmental, historical) influence the quality of life in this country?

Egypt has a fairly high fertility rate of 3.5. Egypt has just over 5% of its land that is livable along the Nile shoreline and the rest is the desert. Egypt's infant mortality rate is falling and the life expectancy is increasing, meaning that Egypt’s population could reach 140 million by 2050 according to the UN. Only fewer than 55 million would escape being classified as “water poor”. There would be an increased demand for education and health care putting stress on the already poor and overburden schools and hospitals for the lower income classes. Employment rates are also very low, which creates additional stress on families living in Egypt. Egypt's economy has been called a “socioeconomic time bomb” because of its combination of a large jobless youth population and a delay in GDP growth rate.

Egypt’s rich history also creates a problem for them. The city is confined to a small plot of livable land but is continually expanding to reflect a more modern westernized world. This creates a problem. Egypt must balance preserving their historical past while building their city into the future on a very small portion of inhabitable land.

Environments issue also greatly affect the quality of life in Egypt. Egypt air and noise pollution problems put many people's health at risk. The air also polluted many monuments in Egypt, coating them with a gray and black crust. Breathing the air in Egypt, especially in larger cities can be incredibly toxic, with 2 people in every 1000 developing a serious form of respiratory disease from the air alone.

Air Pollution

Egypt suffered under the rule of Hosni Mubarak for three decades. He created a system where the rich became richer and the poor, poorer. The country was run by a system of injustice and bribery, thus landing more Egyptians living in poverty. The government weakened a whole generation of Egyptians by not allowing access to proper education, healthcare, and creating a poor environment for their social wellbeing.

What issues of poverty does your chosen nation face? What causes this failure to thrive?

Egypt is the fifteenth most populated country in the world. They are currently facing a poverty crisis with a 24.2% unemployment rate, and 31% of children are facing chronic malnutrition opposed it only 23% in 2005. This failure to thrive can be attributed to an increase of crisis the country has been faced with over the past decade. This includes the avian flu epidemic, and the food, fuel, and financial crisis, as well as the unstable government transition. The majority of the population suffers from an inadequate food supply, resulting in malnutrition. Malnutrition has gotten so bad that many children suffer from stinting; chronic malnutrition that is irreversible, resulting in children unable to reach their full mental and physical appearance. 70% of Egypt's population receives food subsidies in the form of ration cards, but 19% of the most vulnerable are excluded.

How is your chosen nation addressing the issue of poverty (locally and globally)?

Egypt is addressing the poverty issue by setting up programs that offer cash support to poor families. The Solidarity Program aids in sending children from poor families to school, while the Dignity program benefits the elderly with disabilities. The solidarity program gives 350 Egyptian pounds ($45) every three months to families in need, and an additional 80-140 pounds for each additional student in the family. The Dignity program targets extremely poor families or individuals who are unable to work, such as people over the age of 65 with disabilities that prevent them from working.

References

Broderick, R., & LeTrent, S. (2013, July 10). 8 issues Egypt is facing. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2013/07/10/living/cnn-buzzfeed-what-egypt-is-fighting-for/

Cairo. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Cairo#toc275565

Cairo. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/places/africa/egyptian-political-geography/cairo

Cairo Population 2017. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/cairo-population/

Egypt launches new programs to address poverty. (2015, June 25). Retrieved from http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/06/egypt-cairo-social-solidarity-dignity-poverty-assiut-sohag.html

Egyptian official: Poverty main cause of overpopulation. (2014, September 10). Retrieved from http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/09/egypt-population-growth-economy.html

H. Y., M. O., & F. R. (n.d.). Responding to Rapid Population Growth in Egypt. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/Publications/Reports/2014/egypt-rapid-population-growth.aspx

The too fertile crescent. (2015, June 04). Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21653623-challenge-egypts-rising-fecundity-too-fertile-crescent

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