Thurgood Marshal attended segregated schools and graduated from Lincoln University in 1930 and Howard University Law School in 1933.
He volunteered his services to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to fight for civil rights cases.
Marshall argued 32 cases and won all but three of them. Cases he argued secured voting rights for all qualified persons regardless of race abolished segregation on interstate buses, and ended state-supported housing agreements that allowed segregation.
Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow was a name for the system of laws that imposed racial segregation and discrimination on colored men and women from the end of the Civil War until the 1950s.
The term "Jim Crow" came from a dance show entitled "Jump Jim Crow" that appeared in the northern part of the country around 1928. It was first performed by Thomas Rice, a entertainer.
The movement to enact Jim Crow laws, by informal extension, was designed to denigrate African Americans socially and to separate them from white people in almost all areas of daily life.
Plessy V. Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson was one of the most important decisions about the meaning of the Thirteenth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment in 19th century.
In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Court upheld one of Louisiana's Jim Crow laws requiring that white and black passengers be seated in separate train cars. This law was challenged by Homer Plessy after he was denied seating on a car reserved for whites.
Sit-ins were nonviolent demonstrations by Colored college students at a segregated lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina.
The sit-ins, which were staged in an effort to end racial inequalities in the South, began on February 1, 1960.
The students, Ezell Blair, Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, and David Richmond, asked for service at a lunch counter in Greensboro. After they were refused service, they stayed quietly in their seats. They were insulted by groups of white people but did not leave until the restaurant closed or when they were finally served.