The Penguin One - Task 2 Gather - Extract - Analyse - Present

Fluxus

The Fluxus movement was about going against restrictions and alternative ways to release creative energy. Dada was essentially the prototype of Fluxus and followed a few of the principals from Dada. Fluxus began to become more defined when artworks moved from being on paper but in the form of actualised enactment. That is because this applied a strong theme of association with viewers.

George Brecht, Water Yam, 1963 Found at: http://www.fondazionebonotto.org/it/collection/fluxus/brechtgeorge/4/422.html

Above is a box that contains Fluxus artwork ideas, this is such an influential piece because the artwork is the concept that is on the cards. Some would be instructions, some would be event cards. The fact that the idea is the artwork is a pin in the Fluxus movement and makes this one of the most influential Fluxus pieces and also why American artist George Brecht is considered a key figure in this movement.

Nam June Paik, Performance at La Monte Young Composition 1960 #10 to Bob Morris as Paik's Zen for Head at the Fluxus Internationale Festpiele Neuester Musik, 1962 Picture found in The Rise of the Sixties - Crow. T, (2004), The Rise of the Sixties, London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd

Nam June Paik was a South Korean artist above is his Zen For Head which involved him placing a long roll of paper down and a bowl of ink and tomato juice and dipping his head and hands into the mixture and drawing a path down the roll of paper.

Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, Performance at the Yamaichi Concert Hall, 1964 Picture found in The Rise of the Sixties - Crow. T, (2004), The Rise of the Sixties, London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd

Yoko Ono was another key figure in the Fluxus movement who would perform artworks in the above piece she would allow members from the audience to cut a piece of her clothing off. This was to make a statement about female vulnerability.

Yvonne Rainer, We Shall Run, dance performance, 1965 Picture found in The Rise of the Sixties - Crow. T, (2004), The Rise of the Sixties, London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd

The works of Yvonne Rainer were part of inspiring the performance aspect of the Fluxus movement and were similar in nature. Her contributions to Fluxus were significant.

Jackson Pollock, Untitled, 1950. Found at: https://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1553

Above is a mark making painting by Jackson Pollock. I believe that mark making could work as a Fluxus inspired book cover as mark making is very expressive and creative, the fact the example above is black and white supports my design solution as I associate black & white colour schemes with Fluxus as many Fluxus pieces were happenings which would be photographed in black & white.

George Maciunas, Fluxus Yearboxes, 1962 Found at: http://www.artinamericamagazine.com/news-features/magazine/design-in-flux/

George Maciunas, the founder of Fluxus used type in mismatching way which I feel could work well in a book cover. A book cover that incorporates the black & white photography (like photographs of the happenings) and type in this style could be perfect.

Dada

Dada began in 1915 in Zurich which was the artists involved way of distancing themselves from the first world war as they would escape into their art. They would stand apart from the barbarity of the war and make collage works & recite written verse. This art movement was so revolutionary that it demanded to be seen not just aesthetically but also politically. The title "Dada" was intended to be an anti-label

Raoul Hausmann, Dada Siegt, 1920 Found at: https://jacket2.org/commentary/avant-garde-i-dada-conquers

Raoul Hausmann was a key artist within the Dada movement whose contributions were mostly collage works. This is because of the concept of using a readymade objects in artworks (or as artworks where the work of Marcel Duchamp is concerned.) collaging is the same principal as you cut up a readymade object in these cases newspaper or magazines/tabloids and use them as your own medium. Raoul Hausmann would also make posters which incorporated typography.

John Heartfield, Kurt Tucholsky Cover, 1929 Found at: http://www.johnheartfield.com/John-Heartfield-Exhibition/john-heartfield-art/political-dada-art/political-art-books/heartfield-deutschland-alles

Above is a Dada artpiece that i feel could work well for book cover inspiration. The collaging could work well as this could potentially be transfigured into something that would appeal to maternal figures or children as collaging is an arts and craft sort of thing that has in the same context has been transfigured to be more appropiate and fun for children. I also think that the different coloured letters could work for the same reason.

Cover of the first Dada review, July 1917 Picture Found in: Dada: The Revolt of Art - Dachy, M, 2006, Dada: The Revolt of Art, Thames & Hudson Ltd.

The above is a design work for a Dada review. Some Dada artworks would use objects which brought to mind that in the book Room the main characters, the mother and son would be in the one room with nothing but the objects around them this sort of association made a connection between the two.

Poster by Otto van Rees, 1915 Picture Found in: Dada: The Revolt of Art - Dachy, M, 2006, Dada: The Revolt of Art, Thames & Hudson Ltd.

The above photo is more of a design work than an artwork, afterall it is a poster. I believe that this design context could work well with the book Room as the concept within the Dada movement was the artists escape from their horrible reality, not unlike the concept of Room.

Hugo Ball in costume to recite his poem, 1916 Picture Found in: Dada: The Revolt of Art - Dachy, M, 2006, Dada: The Revolt of Art, Thames & Hudson Ltd.

Hugo Ball was the founder of Dada made an announcement in 1915 which the following artists responded to: Jean Arp, Sophie Taeuber, Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco & Otto Flake. They all found themselves in Zurich either because due to the war they were not allowed to leave or they had come here to escape it.

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 Found at: http://www.radford.edu/rbarris/art428/Dada.html

Above is the most famous example of readymade art by Marcel Duchamp who begun the concept of readymade artworks. The concept challenged what is considered the meaning of a work of art

Feminist Art

Barbara Kruger, All Violence is an Illustration of a Pathetic Stereotype, 1991 Found at: http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/feminist/Barbara-Kruger.html

The above is an installation piece by Barbara Kruger who is a key figure in feminist art whose combining of typography and black & white photography became a symbol for the positive and negative interpretations of the messages in her artworks. With all of her artworks she tries to avoid complexity as she feels the simplicity will most likely draw people in.

Barbara Kruger, Your Body is a Battleground, 1989 Found at: http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/feminist/Barbara-Kruger.html

The above piece was made for a womens rights demonstration in Washington in 1989 for which she also wrote a feminist pamphlet that was translated into many languages to help spread the message. The same theme of combining typography and black & white photography applies. She also published books on discrimination as well as designing many things from posters to t shirts and also made video/multimedia installation artworks.

Barbara Kruger, Seeing Through You, 2004 Found in 100 Contemporary Artists - Taschen, 2009, 100 Contemporary Artists, Hohenzollernring, Taschen
Mary Kelly, Post Partum Document, 1976 Found at: http://www.marykellyartist.com/post_partum_document.html

Mary Kelly was a crucial part of feminist art who one of the first women to teach about women in art. Above is all pieces from her Post Partum Document which took place over 6 years and explored the relationship between a mother and a child and how this dictates that society believe there is a devision of labour between a mother and a father that is socially acceptable. Post Partum Document was to be a very intimate personal and empathetic experience which included narrative. It was to document things she experienced when her son was growing up and some parts would be made a certain way to show what errand she would be tending to and what may be running through her head at the time.

Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #48, 1979 (reprinted 1998) Found at: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/sherman-untitled-film-still-48-p11518

Cindy Shermans contribution to Feminist Art is more subjective. She was a photographer and film director whose feminist artworks were conceptual portraits. She is a key figure in feminist art but also I think that photography inspired by her works would be fitting for a book cover & typograaphy in a Barbara Kruger inspired design could be utilised with some maternal themes like the Mary Kelly works which would also be perfect for the book Room as there are maternal themes in this book. Her work was intended to make the viewers reconsider cultural assumptions.

Book Design by Liz Cosgrove, Published in 2016 Found at: http://parchmentgirl.com/best-book-covers-2016/

The above piece had a Barbara Kruger look to it except the image isn't black and white at all it has a gradient map effect but this is similar to the black and white as there is the same exposure and contrast. A texture of some sort has also been used.

The Girls, Emma Cline, 2016 Book Design by Suzanne Dean & Neil Krug Found at: https://www.penguin.co.uk/articles/on-writing/cover-story/2016/jun/designing-the-girls/

The above book cover is similar to how I'd intend my designs to look. Photography is being used as is strong, clean typography.

Bibliography

2016, B.B. (2016) Emma Cline racconta in ‘le ragazze’ tutte le fragilità dell’adolescenza. Available at: http://www.langolodeilibri.it/le-ragazze-emma-cline-libro-del-mese-novembre/ (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

Barbara Kruger - feminist artist - the art history archive (2007) Available at: http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/feminist/Barbara-Kruger.html (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

BBC (no date) Water Yam by George Brecht. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/cutandsplice/water_yam.shtml (Accessed: 22 February 2017).

Chamberlain, C. (2014) Design in flux. Available at: http://www.artinamericamagazine.com/news-features/magazine/design-in-flux/ (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

Dadaism - an up-to-date Art Movement with strong statements (2016) Available at: http://www.freshdesignpedia.com/art/dadaism-an-up-to-date-art-movement-with-strong-statements.html (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

Designing the girls (1995) Available at: https://www.penguin.co.uk/articles/on-writing/cover-story/2016/jun/designing-the-girls/ (Accessed: 21 February 2017).

Heartfield, J.J. (2011) Political art books with dada Photomontage artist Heartfield graphics. Available at: http://www.johnheartfield.com/John-Heartfield-Exhibition/john-heartfield-art/political-dada-art/political-art-books#14 (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

johnaulich (2015) The post industrial condition: Fluxus and late capitalism. Available at: http://www.johnaulich.co.uk/fluxus-post-industrial/ (Accessed: 7 February 2017).

Limited, C. (2010) The Penguin books you’ll never read. Available at: http://www.stylist.co.uk/books/the-penguin-books-youll-never-read (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

Tate (1975) Cindy Sherman (born 1954). Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/cindy-sherman-1938 (Accessed: 21 February 2017).

Citations, Quotes & Annotations

2016, B.B. (2016) Emma Cline racconta in ‘le ragazze’ tutte le fragilità dell’adolescenza. Available at: http://www.langolodeilibri.it/le-ragazze-emma-cline-libro-del-mese-novembre/ (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

(2016, 2016)

Barbara Kruger - feminist artist - the art history archive (2007) Available at: http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/feminist/Barbara-Kruger.html (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

(Barbara Kruger - feminist artist - the art history archive, 2007)

BBC (no date) Water Yam by George Brecht. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/cutandsplice/water_yam.shtml (Accessed: 22 February 2017).

(BBC, no date)

Chamberlain, C. (2014) Design in flux. Available at: http://www.artinamericamagazine.com/news-features/magazine/design-in-flux/ (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

(Chamberlain, 2014)

Dadaism - an up-to-date Art Movement with strong statements (2016) Available at: http://www.freshdesignpedia.com/art/dadaism-an-up-to-date-art-movement-with-strong-statements.html (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

(Dadaism - an up-to-date Art Movement with strong statements, 2016)

Designing the girls (1995) Available at: https://www.penguin.co.uk/articles/on-writing/cover-story/2016/jun/designing-the-girls/ (Accessed: 21 February 2017).

(Designing the girls, 1995)

Heartfield, J.J. (2011) Political art books with dada Photomontage artist Heartfield graphics. Available at: http://www.johnheartfield.com/John-Heartfield-Exhibition/john-heartfield-art/political-dada-art/political-art-books#14 (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

(Heartfield, 2011)

johnaulich (2015) The post industrial condition: Fluxus and late capitalism. Available at: http://www.johnaulich.co.uk/fluxus-post-industrial/ (Accessed: 7 February 2017).

(johnaulich, 2015)

Limited, C. (2010) The Penguin books you’ll never read. Available at: http://www.stylist.co.uk/books/the-penguin-books-youll-never-read (Accessed: 8 February 2017).

(Limited, 2010)

Tate (1975) Cindy Sherman (born 1954). Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/cindy-sherman-1938 (Accessed: 21 February 2017).

(Tate, 1975)

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Olivia Juliette Baird
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