La Historia de Espana Ava Berardi 8Corazones

Invading Spain

CELTAS

  • The first group invadir the Eastern part of Spain were the Celtas.

IBEROS

  • The first group invaded Western Spain were the Iberos.

CELTIBEROS

  • The two groups, the Celtics and the Iberos, combined to form the Celtiberos, who inhabited Spain as an actual civilization.

ROMANS

  • The Romans invaded Spain and exhausted all of their resources, while killing people who could have helped.

VISIGOTHS

  • Visigoths did the same thing the Romans and Celtiberos did.

MOORS

  • The Moors used Spain as an escape from religious and cultural persecution.
  • They easily defeated Visigoth Kingdoms, conquering almost all of the peninsula.

A different kind of battle

La Reconquista
La Reconquista was a continuous fight between Christian kingdoms in the North and Muslims, who controlled the South.
  • Reyes Catolicos de Spain were Fernando of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castalla.
  • They solidified their power through religion.
  • Spain batió the Moors in Granada in 1492.

The Spanish inquisition

Last Moorish king defeated!!!

  • To all Musulmanes left in Spain: LEAVE OR CONVERT!
  • To be sure if they have convertido: interrogation and torture until they confess, or put them on trial and burn them.

Gold Diggers

La cazafortunas were not only married not only for money, but for power.

Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel

  • Juana was known as "La Loca."
  • She casó Felipe of the powerful Habsburg family.

1516- 1556: Carlos I

  • Carlos I was the son of Juana ("La Loca") and Felipe.
  • He was the Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Spanish empire creció rapidly.
  • Gold, silver, and new crops flooded into Spain from the Americas.

Road Warrior

CARLOS V
  • Carlos V used funds that were flooding in to support many religious wars he was fighting.
  • Spain became one of the strongest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to stop Reforma Protestante.
  • His legacy was passed to his son, Felipe.

Family feud

Felipe II

  • War against Protestants
  • Married Mary Tudor of England, attempting to create an international Catholic alliance.
  • Wanted to bear a son to become King of England, however there was no son and Protestant Elizabeth I came to power.
  • Annexed portugal: Dutch declarada independence from Spain, starting a war involving England.
  • Spain is defeated by England.
Portugal broken off from Spain

La Leyenda Negra

Propaganda against Spain from England and Portugal: DON'T GO TO SPAIN!

EL Greco

Greek painter named Domenikos Theotokopoulos.
  • Viajó to Spain in search of work.
  • Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him.
  • Moved to Toledo and hits it big time.
One of El Greco's paintings

Habsburg kings

  1. After Felipe II, Felipe III
  2. Felipe IV produjo the richest periods in Spanish history: The Siglo de Oro

Siglo De Oro

Literature, Art, and Drama
  • Only time that Spain has flourished
  • La Vida es Sueño
  • Lope de Vega , Tirso de Molina
  • Don Quixote

THe ENd of the habsburgs

  • Felipe IV's son: Carlos II
  • "El Hechizado" ("The Bewitched")
  • Died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to the throne.
Carlos II

WAR

Guerra de sucesión española, pitting royal families and their nations against each other for the ruling of Spain.
  • Ended in 1713: Spain perdió Gibraltar to England.
  • Felipe V becomes rey de España.
  • The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today.
THE BOURBONS
  • Component rulers, más interesados with life at court
  • Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state: Neoclassical ideas of la Iluminación

CArlos IV

  • Grandson of Felipe V
  • Total incompetence
  • Dealt with Napoleon= used dynamite

More War

  • Rebellion of 1808 in Madrid begins Guerra de la independencia española.
  • Bonaparte fue removió from throne in 1812.
  • Most colonies in America ganaron independence.
  • Constitución de 1812- Monarquía parlamentaria.

LEt's Not forget, SPanish has tried...

1. Monarchy (only kind of successful)

2. Parliamentary monarchy (x2)

3. Totalitarian

4. Republic (x3)

5. Dictatorship (x2)

Fernando Vii

  • Son of Carlos IV, regresa from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon's troops.
  • Totalitario
  • Murió in 1833, leaving a daughter, Isabel.
ISABEL II

A new kind of Ruler: Isabel II

  • Country es dividió on issue of woman ruler.
  • Isabel II reigns from 1833-1868.
  • Carlists constantly opposed her authority.
  • Isabel II is removed from power in 1868.
  • An Italian, King Amadeo of Saboya, takes her place from 1870- 1873.
  • Spanish republic proclamó from 1873-1874.

The Bourbons are back

  • Reign of Alfonso XII form 1875-1885, followed by Alfonso XIII from 1902-1931
  • Spain quickly begins a downslide: loss of last remaining colonies and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco.
Alfonso XIII

Alfonso XIII

  • Unable to stop the political tension.
  • La Dictadura established from 1923-1931: unable to solve problems.
  • 1931: Should Spain continue a monarchy or give the democracy another try?

One MOre time?

Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931.
  • Sets up a new, progressive constitution: women can vote, allows divorce, separates Church from State, and creates public school.

Why can't we be friends?

New government creates an even deeper political and social divide.
  • Military, Church, and upper class think there are too many changes.
  • They don't want the public to have power.
  • Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes.

Civil war!

General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning la guerra civil.
  • Ayudó by forces from Germany and Italy.
  • Ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning.
  • Franco is the dictator.

Francisco Franco

  • 1939-1975
  • Idealized "glory years" of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II.
  • El Regionalismo: everyone under Franco, cannot publish/televise anything without consent, consequence- dead.
  • Kicked out artists, intellectuals, and scientists (wants no one to be able to think for themselves).

One more time!

  • Basque terrorist group of ETA assassinated Franco's chosen successor.
  • Franco escogió grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over.
  • Franco's death in 1975: Juan Carlos I de Bourbon becomes King of Spain.

Juan Carlos I de bourbon

  • Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, declares la democracia in Spain.
  • He names Adolfo Suarez as first el primer ministro.
  • Begins the period known as la Transición.
Adolfo Suarez

Democracia

  • 1978: Suarez fue elegido in the first elections held in Spain since 1936.
  • 80s: Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU.
  • Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.

Islamic Attack

March 11, 2004: Islamic fundamentalist terrorists kill nearly 100 and injure over 2000 in Madrid

A New Direction

  • Two days after attack: Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero elected as the new Prime Minister of Spain.
  • His first action was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq.
  • Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex marriages.
  • Won re-election in 2008.

La Familia Real

As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.

Credits:

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