1. Ottoman Empire loses Power- the ottoman Empire stretched its influence through multiple continents in 1699. But with its great influence and size, it began to decline. In an attempt to solve its problems, the empire tried to bring reforms onto itself before it gave way to the imperialist powers of Europe.
Above shows the great influence the Ottoman empire had through its extensive territory.
2. Reforms fail- After the death of Suleiman I in 1566, The Ottoman empire was lead and controlled by many weak leaders. Problems such as corruption and theft lead to inflation of their currency and civil disobedience. By the 1830's, nationalistic movements lead to the independence of Greece and self rule of Serbia. Noticing the weakness of the country, Europe began to take lands.
Suleiman the first was considered the last great ruler of the Ottoman empire
3. Europeans Grab territory- With the Ottoman Empire having large access to to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, European countries desired to control that land. Countries in the west had to travel through Ottoman lands to gain access to the sea. While Russia allied itself with the Empire until waging war in the 1900.
Countries like Russia allied with the Ottoman Empire to gain access to the Black Sea in order to export goods and resources. Many countries had to travel through Ottoman control lands due to its strategic location.
4. Russia and the Crimean war- Russia Began to launch several attacks against the Ottoman empire in order to gain control of the Black Sea. the war that started was called in the Crimean war and took place in 1853. While the Ottoman empire won the war with the help of Britain and France, the war highlighted the Empire's weak military. local groups began to revolt against the empire further weakening the Empire and losing land. Muslim nations began reforms of their own by opening up to European ideals and established political and social reforms.
Picture displays Britain and French interference in the war. The countries joined the Ottoman side in order to prevent Russia from expnding its power
5. Egypt tries to reform- After breaking away from The Ottoman empire in 1805, Muhammad Ali gained control of Egypt. There he established multiple military and economic reforms. Because of the location of Egypt, European powers worked with the newly established country. British influence lead to the creation and control of the Suez canal. This allowed Britain a large influence in imperialism and allowed Egyptians the ability to export goods.
The Suez Canal was created in 1869. It was created to allow trade and contact with European countries, and Egyptian people.
6. Prussia pressured to change- European countries looked to take advantage of Prussian resources and location of the country. In order to financially support themselves, Prussian leader Nasir al-Dhin sold the rights to operate business in certain areas. This began in 1891. Two main operations involved oil mining and Tobacco. After riots broke out from Dhin allowing European countries to sell Prussian Tobacco, Dhin's sphere of influence declined. Revolutionaries took control in 1907 and later formed a constitution in 1908.
Depicts the Vast oil fields in Prussia. Europeans began to heavily involve themselves with Prussia after the discovery of the fine resources in 1908
Terms and Names
- Geopolitics- An interest in taking land for its strategic location or products
- Crimean War- War fought in 1853 between the Russian and the Ottoman empire. Russia wanted to expand its powers and take over the Red sea
- Suez Canal- Canal in Egypt that connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. Opened in 1869
"I approve of the Continued occupation of Egypt..." - Joseph Chamberlain. Joseph was regarding the large and expanding influence England was receiving because the control of Egypt, or more importantly the control on the Suez canal in 1882
"...Selling the Realms of Islam... To Foreigners" - Sayyid Jamal Al-Din Al-Afghani. Jamal was reffering to the leader of Prussia in regards of allowing Europeans the right to sell Persian Tobacco. In order to be economically stable, Persia sold the rights to operate business in Persia to European powers in the early 1900's.
- 1566 Death Of the Great Suleiman- Considered the beginning of the downfall of the Ottoman Empire
- 1830 Greece gains independence- Highlights the declining influence the Ottoman Empire has
- 1853 Crimean War- Fight for the Black Sea. Showed the military weakness of the Ottoman Empire
- 1869 Suez Canal- Suez Canal was opened in Egypt. connected the European powers with new resources and goods
- 1907 Persia creates Constitution- Shows the influence of Western ideals being incorporated throughout the world.
Suleiman the Magnificant -Was considered the final great Ruler of the Ottoman Empire. Ruled through 1566. Brought great economic wealth throughout the Empire and was able to control many different people with different backgrounds, language, and culture.
Muhammad Ali- Important because he broke ties with the Ottoman Empire and established Egyptian world power. Ali created legal and military reforms throughout his country and established alliances with European powers. His ideals allowed Egypt to create economic creations like the Suez Canal