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Chapter 28 The Civil Rights Movement

Introduction

African Americans continued to face segregation and discrimination after World War II. Early victories in the civil rights movement included the end of segregation in baseball in 1947 and President Truman's ban on segregation in the military in 1948. These successes were the beginning of a national movement for civil rights.

Desegregating schools and other public facilities.

I. Brown v. Board of Education

In 1896 the Supreme Court case of Plessy v. Ferguson established the "separate-but-equal doctrine. This doctrine stated that federal, state, and local governments could allow segregation as long as separate facilities were equal. Early civil rights leaders, led by members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), focused on ending segregation in America's public schools, and other public facilities. Check out the link below regarding the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education. This important case would end up overturning the Plessy v. Ferguson decision, and ruling that segregation in schools and other public facilities was illegal.

Task #1: Watch the video below about Brown vs. Board of Education. Then, answer the question below.

II. Little Rock Nine

The Little Rock Nine

On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools and other public facilities was illegal (Brown v. Board of Education), however, many schools were slow to desegregate. In the entire South, only three school districts began desegregating in 1954. In Little Rock Arkansas, the school board started by integrating one high school. It allowed nine outstanding black students to attend Central High School. These students became known as THE LITTLE ROCK NINE. Please learn about the Little Rock Nine using the resources below. When you finish, please show what you know by completing TASK #2.

Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957--Federal troops escort the Little Rock Nine to school after Arkansas' governor blocks the students from entering the school.

Task #2: Look at the information at the links above about the Little Rock Nine. Feel free to explore other resources as well. Learn about the Little Rock Nine, then...

Click on the link below and describe, in your own words, who were the Little Rock Nine and how did their actions change the lives of African Americans living in the United States?

III. ROSA PARKS AND THE MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT

Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Although Brown v. Board of Education officially made segregation illegal in the United States, many public facilities remained segregated. In Montgomery, Alabama, black passengers were required to sit in the back of city buses. If the whites-only front section filled up, black passengers had to give up their seats. on December 1, 1955, a seamstress and NAACP worker named Rosa Parks boarded a bus and sat in the front row of the section reserved for black passengers. When the bus became full, the driver told Parks and three others to give their seats to white passengers. Parks refused. The bus driver called the police and parks was taken to jail. To protest Rosa Park's arrest, a bus boycott was organized called the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Thousands of African Americans stopped riding the buses. Check out the links below for more information about Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

Task #3

IV. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Task #4: Peaceful Protest

"I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character." --Martin Luther King, Jr. at the March on Washington, August 28, 1963

As a powerful and moving speaker, Martin Luther King, Jr. became one of the leading voices of the civil rights movement. He led a series of marches and protests including the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 and the 1963 March on Washington. For more information about Martin Luther King, Jr., his protests, and the March on Washington, visit the links and resources below.

Task #4: You do the Math!

When Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his "I Have a Dream" speech at the March on Washington in 1963, he stated, "Five score years ago..." What year is he talking about (HINT: A score = 20)? What famous proclamation was made that year? (Click on the button below to answer the questions).

Sitting down to stand up for civil rights! A Sit In: a demonstration in which protesters sit down and refuse to leave.

V. Sitting Down to Stand Up for Rights--The Greensboro Sit-In

On February 1, 1960 four African American students went into a Woolworth in Greensboro, North Carolina, and staged a sit-in at the lunch counter. They sat in the whites only section of the lunch counter and ordered coffee--refusing to move. The idea spread, and with each day that passed, more students began to take part in similar protests for equal rights. For more information about the Greensboro sit-in, visit the links below.

Task #5

Now that you have learned information about Civil Rights leaders, press the button below to answer the final question.

After you have finished all 5 tasks, go to Google Classroom and play the Civil Rights Quizizz Game until the end of the period.

In addition to the resources above, the following was also used as a resource for this quest.

Deverell, William, and Deborah G. White. United States History: Civil War to the Present. Orlando, FL: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012. Print.

Created By
Jennifer Hesseltine
Appreciate

Credits:

Created with images by travis13 - "desegregation" • wood.smoke - "Little Rock Nine (9) Arkansas Leg bldg" • The U.S. Army - "arkansas" • edans - "El autobús de Rosa Parks..." • e-strategyblog.com - "Martin Luther King Jr. - I Have A Dream Speech" • jerseyfreeze - "Woolworth's lunch counter"

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