Cloning is the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. It is still currently used and possibly be used in the future. Some ethical issues are that it can cause genetic damage, many health risks to the mother, and many losses of the embryos and fetuses.
There are a few benefits and problems with cloning. It's been in research that it may be able to reverse the aging process. Used to reverse heart attacks and it could help infertile parents have babies. But there are problems as well. The child is most likely to not live past birth and it could have birth defects.
They used computer for research and it's important to know the Human Genome so they can replicate the entire parts of the body. They first tried embryonic cloning on a sea urchin in 1885 and a second time on a salamander when they tried to split the two cells apart.
Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetically Modified Organisms- produced when genes from one species is artificially forced into the genes of another species. We started GMO testing many years ago. We started out with testing on plants and then went to animals. Scientists are now making the big leap forward to test on humans.
It is still used today and most likely in the future. According to the state law, stores and companies do not have to tell customers if their products have GMO's in it.
One example of GMO's in animals is the silk-producing goat. In this experiment, the gene from a spider used to make silk was inserted into the DNA of a goat. The goat then produced silk proteins in it's milk. Milk is extracted and the silk is used for various industrial and medical purposes.
There aren't any benefits and problems with GMO's but there are some. Some benefits are that it increases the amount of product in farms. It's more environmentally friendly because they conserve water, soil, and energy. Some problems are that it can cause cross contamination, threaten crop diversity, pose a threat to insects that are important to the environment, and there hasn't been enough testing. Technology that is used in unknown and knowing the Human Genome is important because they need to know what parts of the body it'll affect.
Stem Cell Research
Stem Cells- undifferentiated cells that can develop into any kind of other cell. Adult- from many types of mature body cells. Embryonic- found in early embryos from in vitro fertilization (outside female system) and donated for research. It has the potential to be used to produce damaged tissues and organs. It is still being used today. No known ethical issues are known. There are some benefits and problems. Adult stem cells avoid any ethical dilemma entirely. They can be isolated from a variety of tissue sources, including adult bone marrow. Problems are that the use of embryonic stem cells for research involves destruction of blastocysts formed from laboratory fertilized human eggs. Technology is used in the research and experiments and knowing the Human Genome is important because they need to know which part to put the stem cells.
DNA fingerprinting & Crime Scene Investigatioly DNA fingerprinting and crime scene investigation. each person's fingerprint is unique based on your DNA makeup. DNA found at a crime scene can be compared to several suspects to determine who did it. The test is used to determine whether a family relationship exists between two people, to identify organisms causing a disease, and to solve crimes. Only a small sample of cells is needed. Even the root of a hair or a drop of blood is enough DNA. Crime Scene Investigation testing. It's a laboratory technique used to establish a link between biological evidence and a suspect in a criminal investigation. A DNA sample taken from a crime scene is compared with a DNA sample from a suspect. If the 2 DNA profiles are a match, then the evidence came from that suspect. It's used now and most likely in the future. The only ethical issues are that it is the widespread use of safeguards for private investigations. AFLP technology is used in DNA fingerprinting. Human Genome- made up of 3 billion nucleotides, which are 99.9% identical from 1 person to the next. It is essential to know that the Human Genome to get the right person with DNA fingerprinting.
Personal Ancestry/ Paternity Kits
With Personal Ancestry and Paternity Kits, you can find out who your father is. You can also find out what ethnicity you are and where you came from. You can collect your own DNA sample and send it to the lab. Or get a kit, take a cheek swab and rub it on the inside of your cheek and check it yourself. Some benefits are that they are accurate, provide financial support, build emotional bond and keeps a peace of mind. Some problems are that there are no commercial ones currently regulated by the FDA which independently analyses the claims of these products. It is used now and unsure if it'll be used in the future if they find a more efficient way. DNA and PCR technology are used to determine the results. There are no known ethical issues and it's important to know the Human Genome when using a paternity kit because it'll make it much easier to use.
PCR and Gel Electrophoresis
Polymerase Chain Reaction is a way to make a copy of DNA. Gel Electrophoresis is a restriction enzyme used to cut up DNA fragments by size. To amplify a segment of DNA using PCR, the sample is first heated so the DNA denatures, or separates, into 2 pieces of a single stranded DNA. Next, an enzyme called "tag polymerase" synthesizes 2 new strands of DNA using the original strand as templates. It is used now and most likely in the future. Some benefits are that it's very sensitive. DNA of interest can be amplified with the DNA from just one cell. They've found new forms of PCR ad many people think that DNA should be left alone to replicate naturally in the cell. Most mapping on the Human Genome projects relies on PCR.
Plasmids, Recombination DNA, & Transgenic Organisms
Plasmids are circular DNA in bacteria. If you insert plasmids into something, it will separate and produce more bacteria. Transgenic Organisms are basically genetic engineering. Recombination is when DNA is joined in a lab from two different organism.