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MSF COVID-19 Crisis Update May 2020

Right now, you may be working from home (like all MSF staff in Canada), caring for family members, or physically distanced from the people you love. You have supported MSF to be in solidarity with people around the world you have never met and likely never will. You remind me that care is about taking the actions which affirm our shared humanity. Thank you.

It has been seven weeks since lockdown measures were put in place here in Canada. As COVID-19 continues moving across the world, MSF staff and supporters working in difficult circumstances, with increase caseloads and complex situations, continue to deliver vital services to populations in need. I hope you read this update with interest and know that your support is invaluable in keeping our program running during this time of constant change and challenge.

Cover photo © Gabriele François Casini/MSF

An MSF nurse talks with a young boy, who brought one of his relatives for a consultation, at MSF’s mobile clinic, in an IDP camp in Northwest Syria. Photo © Omar Haj Kadour/MSF

Our Priorities

At this time, our priorities remain protecting our staff with the proper supply of equipment (PPE), maintaining our ongoing operations wherever possible, adapting our services where necessary and launching emergency interventions for communities facing outbreaks.

With COVID-19 impacting different countries in different ways, our response requires a comprehensive community-centered approach. Tailoring our response to local communities and local capacity is essential to meeting the unfolding crisis and maintaining a continuity of care for people with underlying conditions.

MSF launches our largest ever response in Belgium. Phtoto © Kristof Vadino

Our Challenges

The impact of a global crisis on our existing operations has created additional challenges and introduced new one, as the situation evolves. Moving supplies and staff to where they are needed most is increasingly difficult in a time where movement is restricted. With a global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), we need to ensure that wealthier nations are not being prioritized over more vulnerable populations. The erosion of trust has also been felt in some communities due to rampant rumors and misinformation circulating.

We know that the virus will not wait for the world to catch up. To meet this crisis, it will take solidarity among all health actors, authorities and individuals. You are a vital part of this response.

We are in a sprint at the beginning of a long marathon. But in our staff, MSF has an incredible source of skills, experience, and dedication. By joining efforts, trusting each other and placing communities at the heart of our response, we can be sure that we will succeed. - Christos Christou, MSF International President

Spotlight

The Rohingya in Bangladesh

Five challenges of COVID-19

One of the most densely populated countries in the world, Bangladesh also houses the world’s largest refugee camp. Across Cox´s Bazar, nearly one million Rohingya refugees live in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions in a sprawling mega refugee camp. As COVID-19 spreads through Bangladesh, responding to, and mitigating the impact of virus poses serious challenges:

1. A highly vulnerable population

Across Bangladesh, many impoverished communities already face a precarious existence in crowded environments, making them particularly vulnerable to COVID-19. Bangladeshis live in densely populated urban and slum areas while the Rohingya refugees are stuck in cramped, squalid shelters, with up to 10 family members to a room, with limited access to resources for personal hygiene.

“People feel frustrated with the constant advice to wash their hands. If you have only 11 litres per day, how is this enough to wash your hands all the time?” says Richard Galpin, MSF water and sanitation expert.

Additionally, after decades of persecution in Myanmar, during which access to healthcare was severely restricted, the Rohingya have low levels of health and lack the protection of routine immunisations, making them particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases.

2. Maintaining essential services and access to assistance

Capacity within the health service sector is being redirected to deal with the spread of the coronavirus, meaning the humanitarian response has been significantly reduced. However, mothers will continue to give birth, children will get sick with diarrhoea and chronic patients will continue to need medication. It is crucial that these essential, life-saving activities are maintained.

For the Rohingya, the onset of the heavy monsoon rains in the coming month means the risk of outbreaks of water-borne diseases, such as cholera, will escalate. Keeping the water and sanitation infrastructure running for such a large camp population is an even greater challenge within the current restrictions. Latrines need to be cleared of sludge, and water networks maintained and repaired; all of which requires supplies, materials and peoplepower, which are all now in limited supply.

3. Erosion of trust

Through our experiences of providing healthcare during other infectious disease outbreaks, MSF has learned how crucial it is to involve the communities in the response, in meaningful ways. This is vital to ensure ownership and protect themselves, to tackle rumours and reduce fear, and to give people a sense of control. Bangladeshi and Rohingya communities are understandably frightened. Rumours and misinformation can spread as fast as the virus.

Our outreach teams in the camps and the neighbouring Bangladeshi villages are working to share advice on how to prevent the spread of COVID-19. To avoid gathering people in groups, they go house-to-house, speaking with individual family members. We are also working with community and religious leaders to help share health messages by word of mouth, and organising tours of our isolation facilities to build trust with the communities.

4. Protecting frontline workers

In Bangladesh, as elsewhere in the world, MSF is facing shortages of essential personal protective equipment (PPE), such as masks, gowns, goggles and gloves. Healthcare workers are the group most at risk of contracting COVID-19. MSF will not expose any of our staff to unnecessary risks of infection, but this will affect the work we can do. Healthcare workers are on the frontline of the COVID-19 response. Without them, there is no way to combat this impending health crisis or to address other medical needs.

“The limitations will determine our ability to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as our capacity to maintain ordinary medical activities,” says Muriel Boursier, MSF Head of Mission. “This uncertainty and having no guarantee that we’ll be able to keep our commitment to our patients, is a huge pressure on the team.”

5. Managing COVID-19 patients

MSF has created isolation wards in all our medical facilities in Cox’s Bazar and is preparing two dedicated treatment centres. In total, we have made 300 isolation beds available, but this is just a fraction of the capacity necessary if there is widespread outbreak within the Rohingya community. Our clinics in the refugee camps are not able to treat severe cases given the lack of ventilators and limited availability of concentrated oxygen.

The need for medical staff, such as doctors and nurses, is clear, but there are many other people involved. We require managers to run our hospitals, logisticians to ensure we have quality medical supplies when we need them, and many more besides. MSF has hired a fleet of buses, which will shuttle hundreds of staff to MSF hospitals and clinics across Cox’s Bazar – a huge and time-consuming daily logistical exercise.

Photo © MSF/Daniella Ritzau-Reid

MUST READ: In-depth article by MSF’s Country Representative in Bangladesh, Paul Brockman https://www.sbs.com.au/news/dateline/preparing-for-covid-19-in-the-world-s-largest-refugee-camp

in the news

Click here to watch MSF Canada President, Dr. Wendy Lai, discuss pandemics in the developing world with other experts. 

Stories from the Field

“If they do not even have food to eat – why would they have soap?”

David Walubila Mwinyi - MSF Medical Data Supervisor South Kivu, DRC

When the first confirmed case of COVID-19 was reported here in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in early March, I wondered straight away how people learned about it, and whether it really was the first case. Had other cases gone unannounced?

While there are low numbers of confirmed cases in DRC, this is more likely to be linked to the fact that very few tests are conducted in the country so far. There is currently only one laboratory that can analyse samples, and it is in Kinshasa. This lab can execute around 100 tests a day for a country of 80 million people. Yet even if people manage access to a health facility to get a test, there are still huge logistical challenges in getting these tests from rural areas in South Kivu where I work, all the way to Kinshasa. Right now, the current average wait time for results is around a week.

One of my main worries when it comes to a pandemic of such proportions hitting the DRC is misinformation, or lack of information. Far too often people lack reliable sources of information, such as recognised medical experts who are working on this new virus or the Ministry of Health. Instead, they get their news from unchecked and often untrustworthy sources through social media- WhatsApp especially. These sources, in most cases, spread rumours rather than truths. Without clear official communications it’s hard for everyone, even me, to discern the truth.

Misinformation also makes already vulnerable people even more vulnerable

Across the country – especially in the East where it is still volatile after decades of instability, war and conflict – we have several groups of already very vulnerable people. This includes people with diabetes or high blood pressure, and those who already be affected by some of the main killers of the region, like malaria and acute respiratory infections, or other diseases such as measles, cholera, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), malnutrition or even Ebola. As a medic, these are the people I am very worried about as we still don’t even know how the virus will behave with these pre-existing conditions.

Many of these vulnerable groups face stigmatisation within their communities already. My concern is that if they become infected with COVID-19, and with so many myths and misinformation, they will face even further stigmatisation, making their lives all the harder.

Hunger makes ICUs seem a distant problem

To make matters worse, now that all borders are closed it is very difficult to not only get in everyday supplies, but also humanitarian staff and medical supplies to help fight COVID-19. Medical equipment such as ventilators are desperately needed. There are only around 40 ventilators here in South Kivu and all of those are here in the capital Bukavu. These 40 ventilators will have to make do for a population of several million. Quite simply it’s not enough.

One might ask; have we thought about setting up intensive care units (ICUs) in the past? It’s a hard ask when people here in DRC are still dying of hunger. Hunger makes ICUs seem a bit of a distant problem. We do not even have the money to guarantee enough food for everyone let alone ventilators.

We cannot compare DRC to Europe

This is one of the reasons why comparisons between the health systems here in DRC to that of China or some other Western countries seem inappropriate in our context. Even when it comes to prevention measures, if you want people to wash their hands with soap and water, you need to provide them with soap and water. The reality here is many simply don’t have access to either. If they do not even have food to eat – why would they have soap?

It is especially difficult to explain to a community who has behaved in a certain way for generations to change customs to avoid negative health consequences. The introduction of measures like social distancing is very difficult to not only explain but also implement. People are accustomed to shake hands when they meet, especially with the elders. To not do so could be seen as a sign of disrespect, something against the tradition and that can cause trouble, especially in rural communities.

There is a lot of scepticism from much of the population. Many people ask me how many people have died from COVID-19 here, compared to malaria, measles, and diarrhoea? The answers often exacerbate confusion as the reality is its very few in comparison. Even for the Ebola outbreak, it did not bring about movement restrictions such as those brought about by COVID-19, or measures such as social distancing and masks becoming obligatory for all without a clear explanation.

We must learn from other epidemics and listen to communities

People are used to epidemics, sadly they are common here. There is something that we can – and should – learn from them. Most importantly, is to listen to communities and acknowledge the traditions they hold so dear by talking with community leaders. We need to acknowledge that COVID-19 is just one of many medical or humanitarian emergencies they are faced with on a daily basis. During the Ebola outbreak, many people with other diseases like malaria, or women who were seeking pre-natal care, were told they could not be looked after because there was no money for that. The money was only for Ebola. So many people started to believe that Ebola was just a business, that people came only to make money and medics were ignoring the actual needs of the population.

We need to meet the populations’ needs, by continuing to provide general health care across the country, earn their trust, and work together towards the end of the outbreak. And finally we must include the community in every step of the way, by not only listening to them but also by employing as many locals as possible to ensure we actively contribute to the overall well-being and prosperity of the entire community.

Photo © Davide Scalenghe/MSF

MSF Global Response

MSF in Canada

Right here at home, we have started responding in Canada for the first time in our history. MSF's capacity in managing emergencies and epidemics; rapidly scaling up access to lifesaving medical care; infection prevention and control (IPC) systems; and establishing safe water and sanitation facilities amid an outbreak may be crucial gaps in experience we can fill, while supporting front line workers to save lives in the process.

MSF Canada does not have medical supplies or a pipeline for supplies here in Canada and will not be launching traditional hands-on medical responses. Our greatest value in operating currently lies in using the expertise of our field staff who are right now within Canada, as borders closed, with the onset of the pandemic.

We have established four Emergency Coordinators- in Quebec, Ontario, B.C, and the Yukon- to liaise with local authorities and health providers. Our focus is working with other organizations, to advise and support COVID-19 operations designed to assist those experiencing homelessness, the elderly, and indigenous populations.

MSF’s first partnerships has been established with Inner City Health Associates (ICHA), Canada’s largest healthcare organization specializing in the care of people experiencing homelessness, to support their COVID-19 pandemic response at Toronto’s first COVID-19 recovery site. MSF will be providing medical technical and logistical advice to ICHA’s 400-bed COVID-19 recovery site, including infection prevention and control, patient flow, staff safety and other aspects of setting up and running the site.

In Quebec, our team completed an assessment of 4 long term care facilities in the North and West of Montreal. They were able to very quickly turnaround 4 comprehensive reports to the structures with recommendations. The facilities all appreciated the visits as they have been under a great deal of pressure in the last weeks with the toll the epidemic is taking on the long-term care sector.

In B.C., discussions continue about potential support MSF could provide to people experiencing homelessness in Vancouver or Victoria. The province is currently reviewing priorities in the response and funding which will further clarify any need for an intervention.

International

For up-to-date detailed information on our international activities by country, click here.

TAKE ACTION

  1. Join us to discuss the critical role of humanitarian innovation in MSF’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic - Thursday, May 28th at 12:00pm EST. We will deep dive into two projects from MSF’s Transformational Investment Capacity (TIC) : MSF Urban Spaces-engaging MSF volunteers and civil society partners to take action in solidarity with local communities and MSFeCARE- harnessing a digital platform to strengthen clinical diagnosis and treatment approaches to improve our humanitarian response on the ground. To register please click here.

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