Manifest Destiny Pages 345-367

Rivalry in the Northwest

In the early 1800s, four nations claimed the vast, rugged land known as the Oregon Country.
The United States based its claim on Robert Gray's discovery of the Columbia River in 1792 and the Lewis and Clarke expedition.

Adams-Onis Treaty

In 1818 Adams worked out an agreement with Britain for joint occupation.
When Adams became president in 1825, he proposed that the two nations divide Oregon along the 49 degree N line of latitude.

Mountain Men in Oregon

Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
Beaver skins were the most valuable skins to trade.
Over time, the mountain men could no longer make a living by trapping.


"What did American gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?"


"We gained land that is now Oregon and we now have access to the pacific ocean."

Oregon and Manifest Destiny - Marcus and Narcissa Whitman

They were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla, Washington.
The new settlers unknowingly brought measles to the mission.

Along the Oregon Trail

The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey.
Gathering in Independence or other towns in Missouri, the pioneers followed the Oregon Trial across the Great Plains, along the Platte River, and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains.

America Seeks its Manifest destiny

Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
Many believed that the nation's mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent.
In 1819 John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River flowing to the sea.

Fifty-four forty or fight

Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
Democrats used the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight," referring the the line of latitude they believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
Polk won the election because Whig support was not united behind Clay.


"How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election.


Polk won the election because Whig support was not united behind Clay

lesson 2


"How did Florida become a state?"


President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.


When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory.
Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824.
The leading planters of northern Florida played a major role in the government and politics of the area.

the territory grows

In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
Florida's desire to enter the Union as a slave stated caused some difficulty.

Statehood of florida

Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States on March 3, 1845.


"What caused the population of Florida to grow?"


Florida only wanted white men over 21 years old to vote in the election. They also wanted to free slaves and have them live in Florida.


In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain. Mexico controlled the land that is now Texas.
At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas. Before long, Americans greatly outnumbered Tenjos.
In 1835 the conflict grew violent.

the alamo

The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
The Alamo defenders had been defeated, but they had bought the Texans time to gather troops and supplies.

texas declares its independence.

During the siege of the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
Texan leaders set up a temporary government.

The lone star republic

In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
Andrew Jackson, however, refuse their request.

texas becomes a state

Many Texans wanted to join the United States.
The situation changed with the 1844 presidential campaign.


"Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas."


Houston sent a delegation to Washington, D.C., but Andrew Jackson refused their request.

Lesson 3


"How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory.


The Arkansas River flowed by so it was a busy trade route. Americans thought that they need to live there.

The new mexico territory

In the early 1800's, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
Mexico, including New Mexico, won its independence from Spain in 1821.
William Becknell was the first one to reach the trail and named it the Santa Fe Trail.


"How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico.


The Santa Fe Trail became a huge trade route and Americans wanted in on all the trades.

CAROLINA's spanish culture

The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.
Mexicans bought mission lands and set up huge ranches, or ranchos.

Conflict Begins

President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
Relations between the two countries were not good.
To bring pressure, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to lead U.S. forces into the disputed area on the Rio Grande.

A war plan

Polk wanted to defeat Mexico but he would need help.
They captured New Mexico's capital, Santa Fe, in 1846 after the Mexican governor fled.

california's uprising

Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
The Bear Flag Republic did not exist for long.

peace terms

Mexico was defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
With Oregon and the former Mexican territories under the American flag, the dream of Manifest Destiny had been realized.


"What did America gain from the Mexican War."


America assumed $3.25 million in debts Mexico owed American citizens.

Lesson 4


"How did the discovery of gold help California."


It helped them not have to work so hard, because they all had plenty of gold.

california gold rush

When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.
Americans made up about 80 percent of the forty-niners.

The californios

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios, Mexicans living in California, citizens of the United States.

The life of a forty-niner

Most forty-niners had no experience in mining.
The California Gold Rush more than doubled the world's supply of gold.

gold rush society

Mining camps contained men of all background but few women.

Economic and political progress

Many people who had arrived looking for gold stayed to farm or run a business.


"How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?"


More people had money from the gold to make houses and businesses.

a religious refuge in utah

While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in the nearby Utah.

the mormons move on

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakenings of the 1830's and 1840's.
Smith hoped to use his visions to build an ideal society.
The Mormons continued to suffer persecution, or mistreatment because of their beliefs.

A haven in the desert

The Mormon migration began in 1846.
In 1847 the Mormons finally reached the Great Salt Lake.
By 1860 there were many Mormon communities, but Utah was not easily incorporated in the United States.


"Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?"


The Mormons continued to suffer persecution, or mistreatment in their belief of polygamy.


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