Civil Rights

Dred Scott Decision

1857

In 1857 a slave named Dred Scott claimed that since he was in free territory he should be freed. Chief Justice Roger Taney disagreed and said that the slaves would never have an american citizenship.

The Emancipation Proclamation

1863

Abraham Lincoln declared that as of January 1, 1863, all slaves will be free. The proclamation didn't free the slaves but was a big turning point.

13th Amendment

1865

The 13th amendment declared that "Nether slavery nor involuntary servitude, except for a crime punishment." It was passed on January 31, 1865 and was ratified or approved by the state on December 6, 1865.

14th Amendment

1868

The 14th amendment gave all people who were born in the U.S. citizenship and all privileges and was ratified on July 9, 1868.

15th Amendment

1870

Before 1870, african american men but not yet women were granted the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the united states to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United states or by any state because of race, color, or previous condition servitude.

Plessy vs. Ferguson

1892

“separate but equal” In 1892 Homer Plessy refused to sit in a jim crow car which was breaking a Louisiana law. It was a supreme court case that ruled that segregation is ok as long as they have the same accommodations.

Brown vs. Board of Education

1954

In 1954 “ separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” the brown vs. board decision allowed black and white students to attend the same school.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

1955

On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery Alabama, a lady named Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a 13 month mass protest for the right to not have segregated buses.

Little Rock Nine

1957

On September 25, 1957 9 courageous kids risked their lives to go to a high school in Little Rock Arkansas. Arkansas tried to prevent this so the national guard had to come in. They became known as the little rock nine.

Sit-ins

1960

It was a way of non-violent protesting. Young african americans sat at a segregated lunch counter which sparked a sit-in movement.

Ruby Bridges

1960

Ruby Bridges was the first african american child to go to an all white school in New Orleans in 1960. Her father felt it wasn't fair that she had to walk passed a school closer to her house just to go to a segregated school.

Freedom Riders

1961

On May 4, 1961, a group of 13 african americans and white civil right activists made the freedom riders, a series of bus trips through the american south to protest segregation.

James Meredith

1962

An african american man that got excepted at the University of Mississippi, but when the officials learned his race they denied his application.

"I have a dream" Speech

1963

In August 1963, Martin Luther king jr. delivered his famous "I have a dream" speech to a crowd of over 250,000 people. The people had gathered as a part of the March on Washington for jobs and freedom. He called for U.S. citizens to end racism. His speech and the march encouraged the president to pass laws against discrimination.

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