Culture Wars: an Emphasis on Tradtionalism By: Francisco Gallo, Chloe SchWipper, Susie Gray

The 18th Amendment, Prohibition, was passed during wartime to conserve grain and maintain a sober workforce. It prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol.

The Volstead Act was passed as a federal law to enforce prohibition.

Prohibition did not end either the distribution or the manufacturing of alcohol. Instead, bars known as speakeasies emerged, which sold bootleg liquor. Officials were laid to "look the other way." Even President Harding served alcohol and took part in gambling. Gangs emerged in this era, fighting for dominance over the bootlegging trade.

Women were generally strong advocates of the amendment.

This is a piece of propaganda from the era. It depicts a fat, wealthy man (a brewer) who is profiting from the "wet" vote. On the other hand, a struggling mother begs you to vote "dry" and help her.

Fundamentalism was the rising belief that the Bible and other religious ideas were to be taken literally. This movement began in opposition to increasingly liberal and progressive views held by the United States. Ideas such as creationism, which is the belief in the creation of the world by God in seven days, began to cause conflicts with other members of society. One famous example of this is the Scope Trial, where high school teacher John Scopes was convicted of breaking a Tennessee law that banned the teaching of evolution. After a long case, which had William Jennings Bryan helping the prosecution, Scopes was found guilty. Even then, his fine was overturned through a loophole, it it still displayed the conflicts between fundamentalism and modern ideals.

The above picture is that of a letter of a civil war nurse, Mary O. Stevens, to the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee asking for his support of suffrage.

Because of their contributions at home while their young men were off fighting the war, the role of women in society changed significantly during the 1920's. First and foremost, the nineteenth amendment was passed in 1920, allowing women to vote. Furthermore, the number of working women increased by 25%. Another significant change was that of women's clothing. While tight corsets and full dresses were once worn by women, now clothing styles had shifted to more comfortable, looser dresses and even *gasp* pants! Lastly, the grounds for divorce was widened, causing an influx in divorces. Women were moving towards being completely independent from the wifely duties of the past. Some even became flappers in the aforementioned speakeasies.

"BBC - GCSE Bitesize: The Changing Role of American Women in the 1920s." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2017.

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