What was the apartheid?
The apartheid was a social system in south Africa that separated white and colored Africans. The apartheid took away rights from the colored Africans, this is why there was a need for independence. The system was used from 1948 to 1994. An organization called the ANC ( African National Congress) was against this system fought for a democratic government.
Who was Nelson Mandela?
Nelson Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, he helped lead the ANC campaign of Defiance of Unjust Laws. He encouraged black South Africans to use civil disobedience to protest against the apartheid. Mandela was sworn in as the first black president of South Africa on May 10th 1994 after 27 years in prison, when the government saw Mandela as a threat to the apartheid.
How was independence won?
Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress protested mainly with non-violence. They organized workers strikes and marches.Nelson Mandela was arrested in 1964 along with other ANC members for protesting against the Apartheid. In 1976, thousands of black students in Soweto protested against the language requirement for African students, and police opened fire with tear gas and bullets. This drew more international attention to South Africa when countries then restricted sales to South Africa on arms and the movement against the apartheid got more attention, and put pressure on the South African Government. In 1989 the South African Government officially ended the apartheid after economic pressure and lifted the ban on the African National Congress, and Nelson Mandela was released soon after. Nelson Mandela was soon elected president and a new constitution was put in place that included a bill of rights.