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Psychology of Iron Man Ptsd?

“Tony’s struggle with anxiety is poignant because it allows us to realize that he is, in fact, still human. To this end, it doesn’t matter to me if his panic attacks are indicative of clinical PTSD, complex PTSD, subclinical anxiety disorder or another psychiatric category we can use as a label. The point is this: A brilliant, powerful, and tough guy can be vulnerable, scared, and confused. Tony Stark is a superhero with the psychological makeup of a human. He is ‘just a man in a can,’ after all.” – Dr. Andrea Letamendi

The quote above references Tony Stark’s evolution throughout the Iron Man and Avengers movie, particularly in Iron Man 3 after he has near death experience (again).

The phrase PTSD is thrown around a couple times during Iron Man’s first movie, to explain Tony’s apparently irresponsible decision to stop manufacturing weapons. So does Tony Stark, in the first Iron Man movie, display symptoms to warrant a diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?

Criteria

The first criterion for having PTSD is obviously experiencing some kind of trauma, specifically in situations dealing with death or the possibility of death, injury, or sexual violence. Tony obviously meets this criterion.

Next, to be diagnosed with PTSD, someone needs to experience intrusive memories or dreams, flashbacks, or psychological or physical distress at something that reminds that person of the traumatic event. The movie never shows Tony experiencing any dreams or flashbacks concerning his trauma, and we don’t know if he had intrusive memories of the event. If he had any psychological or physical distress at reminders, they were not visible during the movie.

Next people with PTSD avoid anything that reminds them of the trauma, either memories, thoughts, or feelings concerning the event, or environmental reminders. Tony doesn’t seem to meet this criterion since he talks about his traumatic experience willingly and even goes back to the area to save the town from the Ten Rings.

Next, a person has to show negative changes in thoughts and mood in at least two separate areas. Perhaps a person is unable to remember important parts of the trauma. They may develop a negative worldview. Tony seems to become less cynical and optimistic after he returns, stopping weapon production at his company and focusing on philanthropic pursuits. Victims of a traumatic event with PTSD may blame themselves or others who are not actually the perpetrators. They may exhibit a negative emotional state and have an inability to experience positive emotions.

Throughout the movie after his trauma, Tony does frequently become upset, but he does so in reasonable situations. He also continues to experience positive emotions, like his feelings toward Pepper or even just exhilaration while flying. People may show less of an interest or participation in activities they used to enjoy, or feel detached from significant friends and family. If just looking at Tony’s behavior during the first Iron Man film, I don’t believe he shows any of these symptoms.

Finally, criteria include showing changes in arousal reactivity, in at least two separate areas. People could show irritable behavior and angry outbursts. Again, Tony does become upset in situations, but his responses are reasonable. People could engage in reckless or self-destructive behavior, which Tony absolutely does by becoming Iron Man and fighting the Ten Rings.

Another possible symptom is hypervigilance. Tony does show heightened vigilance as a superhero, but his vigilance doesn’t seem outside the norm of any other kind of hero in dangerous situations, like a police officer or firefighter. Related to hypervigilance is an exaggerated startle response. Tony never overreacts to surprises, but he does remind Pepper not to sneak up on him. PTSD symptoms can include difficulty with concentration. Tony has no problems concentrating on his projects. Last is sign of sleep disturbance, which the movie does not explicitly show.

The last three criteria are more technicalities. If someone has PTSD, they experience symptoms longer than 1 month. Even if Tony met all the criteria for this diagnosis, I’m not sure how long the movie spans. These symptoms also have to illustrate clinically significant distress and cannot be somehow due to substance use or a medical condition. If Tony does have any of the above symptoms indicating PTSD, a clinician would have to determine that they are not a side effect of the arc reactor in his heart.

Resilience Factors

Frequently people, like Dr. Letamendi, talk about Tony’s symptoms after the first Avengers movie and in Iron Man 3. And yes, Tony did have a near-death traumatic experience in that movie, but so did he in the very first Iron Man movie. He survived explosions, shootings, surgery, and spent three months wired to a car battery in a cave imprisoned by terrorists. So here’s another question. Why doesn’t Tony Stark develop PTSD?

There’s a concept called resilience. Basically, resilience is a person’s ability to psychologically “bounce back” or maintain a certain level of mental health after an upsetting experience. Tony has some strengths, or psychological safeguards, that help him after his trauma.

Social Support – When Tony is rescued, he is greeted by his best friend Rhody, who apparently never stopped searching for his friend. Pepper Potts and “Happy” Hogan meet Tony as soon as he arrives back in America and attend to his needs (namely, a cheeseburger). They are employees, but also friends. Even Obadiah Stane is a person who continually appears to support Tony after his trauma. We see these relationships before his trauma, and they last and carry Tony afterwards.

Coping Confidence – If there’s anything Tony Stark has, its confidence, for good reason. Tony knows he’s a genius and capable of solving most problems. He has a plan to escape, and he has confidence it will work. The car battery and initial model of the arc reactor hooked to his heart are ineffective; so he just creates better versions. With Tony’s confidence, he believes without a doubt that not only will he bounce back from this trauma, he will thrive.

Hope – Instead of despairing about the role his company has played helping terrorists and profiting from death, Tony decides to make a change. He believes he can make a change for the better not only in his company and his personal life, but in the world. After his trauma and seeing firsthand some of the evils in the world, Tony most importantly does not give up.

I like Dr. Letamendi’s quote (that’s why I included it); a diagnostic label doesn’t actually matter. It’s Tony’s story and what we can learn about humanity from it that matter. However, people throw around diagnostic labels frequently and often inaccurately, so it’s important to address it, if only for educational reasons.

Created By
Heather Ness
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Created with images by rawpixel - "untitled image" • klimkin - "karate sunset fight"

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