Ecuador By: TAnia M., Sara, Kori, Cindy, CaMilla

Cameras, lasers, and eyes play a imperative role in forensic science and crime scene investigations. Without the application of these three pivotal components, evidence in cases could potentially not be analyzed efficiently.
Fingerprint
  • Cameras catch effectual depictions of crime scenes.
  • Lasers locate and analyze fingerprints, hairs, gunshot residue, and bodily fluid stains.
  • Your eyes are complex and beneficial for sight and finding significant information about deceased individuals, but are not always reliable during crime scenes (eyewitness).
Cameras have evolved in history from bulky cumbersome devices from the ancient Greeks and Chinese, to digital and film apparatuses that have and continue to have a massive impact on international history, science, mathematics, and arts. Cameras such as film cameras and digital cameras have a substantial affect on forensic science and crime scene photography.

Film cameras use plastic coated photographic film to form a latent (undeveloped) image. A chemical process called film developing is applied later to the film to create visible and decipherable images. Still image film cameras capture light, as the shutter only opens as the operator pushes the button; while motion film camera shutters open and close automatically twenty four times a second, with a continuous flow of film coming through. Parts of both film and digital cameras include the lens, viewfinder, body, shutter, aperture, image sensor, memory card, LCD screen, flash, and user controls. Some of these parts can be surprisingly indistinguishable to parts of your eye, as discussed below.

Film Camera

A digital camera records and stores images in a digital form, unlike film cameras. By using a charged coupled device (CCD), photo sensors can be captured, which results in models having the capability of capturing sound, video, and still images. This allows the images to ultimately be uploaded to computer or printer. Cameras play tremendous role in photographing evidence at a crime scene. If crime scene photographers aim to shoot wide angle, aerial, far/away shots, show accurate measurements and labeling of their images, then the evidence can be used in a court of law. Essentially, the examination of the evidence can determine whether someone is guilty or innocent.

A laser is a device that emits a light source through the process of optical amplification. The word laser simply means "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". Although the first laser was created in 1960, the explanation and understanding of light in the form of electromagnetic radiation can be accredited to physicist Max Planck in 1918.

A laser is created when electrons in atoms absorb energy from an electrical current and become "excited". From a lower energy orbit and a higher energy orbit, excited electrons mobilize around the atom's nucleus. As the electrons return to a normal state, they emit particles of light (photons). Lasers are considered optical amplifiers because they intensify the power of an electromagnetic light wave.

Portable lasers are utilized by forensic investigators to locate physical clue components such as latent fingerprints, hairs, fibers, bodily fluid stains, and gunshot residue. Fingerprints for example are difficult to discover in a crime scene, however, lasers speed up that process by finding low visibility fingerprints swiftly. Without portable lasers, crime scene investigation would be a lengthy process that could hinder an individual's right to seek justice and closure in a timely manner.

One considerable benefit of your eyes in crime scene investigation, is that a forensic examiner is able to tell the time of death, age, and birthday of a deceased person. By analyzing potassium, urea, and hypoxantine concentrations in the jelly-like tissue of the eye(virtreous humor), and utilizing carbon dating methods; scientists are able to determine the time of death, age, and birthday of an unidentified body; which can assist in solving cases. On a different note, eyewitness testimony in court cases rely heavily on the accuracy of human memory, but for criminal cases it is harder to establish who is really at fault. The reason for that is because everything we learn is permanently stored in the mind, and sometimes those details can be lost from memory. Depending on the time of day and where you were at the scene of the crime, vision can be skewed differently in your brain as you see it in real life.

Picture taken for a crime scene
  • Cameras catch effectual depictions of crime scenes.
  • Lasers locate and analyze fingerprints, hairs, gunshot residue, and bodily fluid stains.
  • Your eyes are complex and beneficial for sight and finding significant information about deceased individuals, but are not always reliable during crime scenes (eyewitness).
eyewitness

Our group will be incorporating a tiny camera into a disguised backpack to document crime scenes in high risk cities in Ecuador. A digital camera will be used to generate more efficient documentation. Although lasers are not a component of this project, we may decide to add something to our gadgetry. In addition, a skit will be performed to convey the inaccuracy of eyewitness testimony, and the power of vision. Consequently, cameras, lasers, and eyes play a crucial role in forensic science and crime scene investigation because of scientific, mathematical, psychological, and technological advancements in society.

During crime investigations the use of daily routines are used to help solve the crimes.

  • The use of speaking and comprehending Spanish to tell a daily routines can be use in many police offices in Spanish speaking countries around the world.
  • It is important to able to know how to describe time, adverbs of frequency, and periods of time in Spanish.
  • The use of speaking and understanding Spanish to tell someone's daily routines can be very useful to Ecuador.
Ecuador flag

It is important to be able to narrate someone's daily routine in Spanish.

There is a lot of different vocabulary to describe your daily routines in Spanish. These words can be either reflexive or non-reflexive verbs. Reflexive verbs are the things that you do to your self. A regular verb is something you do to a different object. It is important to be able to learn how describe daily routines in Spanish because it can be used to help solve crimes in Ecuador. The investigators can be able to communicate in Spanish and also describe the victims or the criminal daily routines in the country's official language.

Some examples of words to describe your daily routines are as listed: despertarse (to wake up), bañarse (to bathe), or, dormirse (to sleep).

  • Examples are: For example, lavarse (to wash oneself).
  • lavar (to wash).
"We speak Spanish."

While narrating someone's daily routine, it's important to use time, adverbs of frequency, and periods of time. Time is used all over the world to keep up with the things you do. It is important to learn how to learn time in Spanish in Ecuador because it will help ask questions and find out things that happened in crime. You can use time to see when something has happened. It's also important to use adverbs of frequency to see how often someone does something.

  • For example: pasó a las tres de la mañana.
  • siempre (always) or raramente (rarely)
  • Todos los días (every day)

According to United States Passports and International Travel website, crime is a widespread problem in Ecuador. Their crimes vary from pick-pocketing, robbery, kidnappings, sexual assaults, rapes, identity thief, drugs, and many more terrible things. With the help of knowing how to say daily routines, time, adverbs of frequency, and periods of time in Spanish detectives in Ecuador will have a easier time finding a criminal or helping a victim.

  • The use of speaking and comprehending Spanish to tell a daily routines can be use in many police offices in Spanish speaking countries around the world.
  • It is important to able to know how to describe time, adverbs of frequency, and periods of time in Spanish.
  • The use of speaking and comprehending Spanish to tell a daily routines can be use in many police offices in Spanish speaking countries around the world.

Not only can Spanish be used to decrease crime rate, hidden cameras can also be used to record things that happen throughout an investigation. A visual data transmitter can record what is happening when you're trying to catch a criminal or trying to collect evidence.

Crimes in Ecuador are continually increasing as a problem. Many crimes that are done are against US citizens; some of the crimes include sexual assault, pickpocketing, robbery and homicides. Plenty of criminals tend to commit crimes against those who don’t know an area very well, are alone or disorientated from alcohol or drugs.

It very important to collect and analyze evidence according to CSI protocol and regulations so all evidence can be contained efficiently without contamination.

When first responders arrive at a crime scene they must:

  • secure/search the scene
  • document/photograph evidence
  • collect evidence
Evidence

The officer to first arrive should always secure a scene through barriers so no person, vehicle or the environment can contaminate the scene or disturb any physical evidence. They must only allow authorized personnel to enter the scene.

Whatever is done has to be documented in chronological order and everything that is found in a crime scene photographed with measurements, this also includes the entire crime scene with every angle possible.

Documentation

It is important exactly how the team collects and package the evidence on the scene; it is important they don’t contaminate it or lose it. Officers always have to be careful in a crime scene because they can contaminate it or physically be harmed or others around the scene can be harmed as well.

All documentation will be held as a permanent records that will be later used to determine if the officers missed anything when they first arrived at the scene.Officers should create systems where they can determine and package the evidence based on size, fragility or where it was found on the scene.

Preserving and collecting evidence will depend on whether the evidence is 2D or 3D. 2D evidence is usually found indoors on items such as countertops, glass and paper which is measured by length times width.

Microscopic

3D evidence is commonly found outdoors in items like sand, clay or mud. It can be measured by length times width times depth.To collect 2D evidence you would more commonly use powder, dust and sometimes lasers. To collect 3D evidence it would require casting. One of the most common types of 2D evidence are fingerprints. Very common types of 3D evidence are foot impressions.

Powder and dust would be used to find fingerprint but sometimes it would prove to be ineffective at times. In the 1970s lasers were first used to detect fingerprints by exposing the compounds of sodium and glucose. Once found it would be acquired by a latent lifting medium then placed into a plastic bag. Casting uses materials that duplicate and retain the characteristics of the impression left. This type of evidence would be placed in a sturdy box to prevent the cast from breaking.

By analyzing class characteristic evidence or individual characteristics evidence we can easily identify something or someone that will help build a case. Once the evidence is sent back to the lab certain characteristics would make the evidence class or individual. Class evidence are given qualities that many people or things can share.

Individual characteristics are far more helpful in solving cases because of the unique qualities it has such as fingerprints or wear marks in shoes.

For example the only people who have the same DNA are identical twins but you can distinguish them through their fingerprints because no one has the same fingerprints.

DNA Strand

Officers must collect and analyze evidence according to CSI protocol and regulations. If it is not contained in the manner it’s supposed to, the strength of a case against someone will deteriorate.

To process and collect evidence the first responder must secure the scene, document it and take photographs. Depending on what type of evidence there is will determine how to effectively preserve evidence that will be analyzed by forensic scientists.

By officers following CSI protocols they will be able to catch more criminals. By following all guidelines the evidence will be credible in court leading to more criminals being prosecuted.

Clothing and accessories in the target language helps us figure out crimes and cases that need to be solved.

  • The way Ecuador dresses
  • The type of accessories Ecuador wear
  • What type of crimes happen in Ecuador continuously
Market with Ecuadorian clothing

What are the type of clothing Ecuador wear ?

The Ecuadorian people has a distinctive dress code. It's influenced by the cultural diversity that are found in different regions of Ecuador. People who aren't familiar with the natives dress code can tell what region a local is based on the way they dress. The Ecuadorian women dress in the closest resemblance to the Incan costumes worn in the Andes.

A white blouse, a blue skirt and a shawl is usually worn by women. In coastal regions, men usually wear 'Guayaberas' (loose-fitting men's shirt often worn in lieu of a jacket.) is worn by men. In the uplands it's best for men to wear a coat and a tie for business meetings. The men would wear it even in the hot weather, preferably in dark or passive colors.

Shopping for shawls

What type of accessories do they wear in Ecuador?

Several of the rainforest tribes in the Ecuadorian Amazon still wear traditional feathered headdresses and other accessories with ethnic or tribal significance, though many younger members combine or replace these with western style clothing. Some Amazonian tribes welcome visitors, others avoid contact. Due to the extreme heat, most of the traditional costumes are more ornamental than warm.

Jewelry is very important, layers of necklaces of predominantly gold beads and red coral bracelets are the most common form of jewelry worn by the Otavalo women.

What are the different types of crimes happening in Ecuador?

Crimes are a severe problem in Ecuador. They have violence offenses like armed robbery, sexual assault, etc. Pick pocketing, purse snatching, robbery, and theft of travel documents are the most common types of crimes committed against U.S. citizens.

Known locally as “secuestro express,” robberies and assaults against taxi passengers present a significant safety concern, especially in Guayaquil and Manta, but they have occurred in Quito. Since September 2009, at least four U.S. citizens have been murdered. In most cases, the victims and alleged perpetrators personally knew each other.

A lot of kidnapping crimes

Clothing and accessories can identify a person if they're missing or they were apart of a crime. It's very important to check clothing and accessories when figuring out the crime.

  • Clothing men and women wear in Ecuador
  • Different accessories women and men wear in Ecuador
  • All the different types of crimes that's happening in Ecuador

If you ever want to take a trip to Ecuador be prepared to dress either in a blouse and a shirt or a dress if you are a women and if you are a man be ready to dress in your coat and tie.

Knowing body parts in Spanish?

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