Cloning: Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Many people first heard of cloning when Dolly the sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. The Key ethical issue with therapeutic cloning is the moral status of the cloned embryo, which is created solely for destruction.
PROS: parents with no eggs and sperm can create childeren that are genetically related. Same sex couples can have childeren without the use of a donor sperm or donor eggs. The men would only require a surrogate to carry the clone until birth. Parents that have lost a child can have that child returned to them with a clone. Also endangered animals can be cloned to save the species.
CONS: Cloning childeren could foster an understanding that childeren can be designed and replicated to the parents' wishes. Also there would be a lack of uniqueness and violate convictions regading human individuality and freedom. Clones could be seen as less than human compared with non-clones. Lastly 95% of animal cloning has ended in failure due to genetic defects, and cloning is considered unsafe because of it
High Tech Genetics: Bioinformatics and Microarrays: The DNA Microarray is a tool used to determine whether the DNA from a particular individual contains a mutation in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2. Some companies manufacture microarrays using methods similar to those used to make computer microchips. On the surface, each chip contains thousands of short, synthetic, single-stranded DNA sequences, which together add up to the normal gene in question, and to variants of that gene that have been found in the human population.
Bioinformatics: the science of collecting and analyzing complex biological data such as genetic codes.
Genetically Modified Organisms: A GMO, or genetically modified organism, is a plant, animal, microorganism, or other organism whose genetic makeup has been modified using recombinant DNA methods (also called gene splicing), gene modification or transgenic technology. Agricultural plants are one of the most frequently cited examples of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
Some benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture are increased crop yields, reduced cost for food or drug production, reduced need for pesticides, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality, resistance to pests and disease, greater food security, and medical benefits to the worlds growing population.
Stem cell Research: Adult vs. Embryonic - Adult: Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Embryonic: Most embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized into vitro - in an in vitro fertilization clinic - and then donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors.
DNA Fingerprinting and Crime scene investigation: DNA Fingerprintimg is a laboratory technique used to establish a link between biological evidence and a suspect in a criminal investigation. DNA Fingerprinting works on the basis that each individuals DNA structure or genetic makeup, is unique and therefore cannot be faked in any way.
Personal Ancerstry and Paternity Kits: Paternity kits are just kits that take DNA from the child and the father and see if they match or in other words, to find out if that is the biological father. Ancestry Kits are kinda the same, you put your DNA in the kit and send it to wherever you got it and it'll give you information about your family in the past, who your ancestors are and help you find your roots.
PCR and Gel Electrophoresis: Polymerease chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Gel electrophoresis is a labrotary method used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or Proteins according to molecular size. In gel electrophoresis, the molecules to be separated are pushed by an electrical field through a gel that contains small pores.
Plasmids, Recombinant DNA and Transgenic organisms: PLASMIDS: a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is distinct from a cell's chromosome DNA. Plasmids naturally exist in bacterial cells
RECOMBINANT DNA: molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS: Genes of one species can be modified, or genes can be transplanted from one species to another. Organisms that have altered genomes are known as transgenic.
CITATIONS: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whatiscloning/ https://blog.udemy.com/pros-and-cons-of-cloning/ https://www.genome.gov/10000533/dna-microarray-technology/ https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetically-modified-organisms-gmos-transgenic-crops-and-732 https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/3.htm https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/therapy/genetherapy