Physics By:bavneet


Solar cities promote the use of renewable sources, such as solar power ( solar panels ), wind energy ( turbines ), etc. Using this types of energy makes certain sources in-expensive and creates a healthier environment for us and wildlife. Further in this project, you will see the connections and why solar cities encourage good use for going eco-friendly.


The key shapes of biomass powering renewable energy would be, sunlight, water, wind, etc. These are natural processes we can utilize repeatedly, therefore the energy is renewable. The use of renewable sources are important for us to utilize because it reduces the amount of pollution spread by non-renewable energy sources. It decreases the risk of getting cancer, breathing problems, and various diseases. Not to mention, to generate electricity naturally by solar, wind energy, etc. There are various types of renewable energy in technology form such as, solar power, wind power, hydroelectric energy, etc.


From the sun converted to be accessible electricity is the energy source, solar power. Commonly, the utilization of photovoltaic cells to transform sunlight to become electricity is the cause of solar energy. A semiconductor is handled for photovoltaics to consume the radiation from the sun so that when the consumption of the radiation releases electrons, it is to be utilized as electricity.

Advantages -

To produce electricity, utilizing solar power is one way to do it.

Environmentally; assists to prevent global warming.

Economically; prevents loss of money, as well as the cost of the sun can’t be changed. Plus, this generates jobs.

Socially; the only payment to give is for the panels.

Disadvantages -

During night, solar power can’t be generated

Decreasing at times when the clouds cover the sky, is the power developed. However, solar energy still generates on cloudy days.

Transforming over 20% of the sun’s rays are cost-effective solar panels

Expanded when the panel looks at the sun face to face, is the solar panel energy production. The result would be, established areas containing panels will look at decreased energy manufacture because the sun isn’t at an optimal angle. Tackling the problem, most large system solar “farms” contain panels on towers, which locates the sun’s movement to make sure the panel stays at optimal angles for the day

Costs -

Regular cost of solar establishment varies on the cost of $15,000 - $29,000 based on the usual sized organizations among 4 to 8 kilowatts

Generally, keeping financial accounts for around 30% of overall cost are solar panels

The chart below shows how the cost of solar panels were and are decreasing - down around 100%; 1977 - more than 50%; only 2007

Connection to solar cities -

As I mentioned in my olg, solar cities promote the use of renewable energy. Using solar panels to generate the electricity in your house, not only makes electrical bills in-expensive but also keeps the environment healthier than the utilization of fossil fuels.


The transformation of wind to electricity is wind power. Commonly, the main formation of wind energy origination utilizes wind turbines which can be constructed differing the sizes to generate the differing amounts of electricity. Large scale wind farms have been constructed located in lots and different countries.

Advantages -

Environmentally; power plants depend on burning of - fossil fuels; coal; natural gas - however wind energy does not. It is a fuel source that is clean.

Economically; jobs are generated - 2016; funding more than $8.8 billion of private capital in the U.S. economy to construct projects, also giving jobs to around 101,000 workers and more.

Disadvantages -

Socially; Required most in cities is electricity, which is located far away in remote areas is where the good wind sites are situated.

Causing loud noises are wind turbines.

Environmentally; Turbine blades could result in the destruction of nearby wildlife, for example spinning turbine blades have killed birds that have flew into it. Electricity production causes pollution in the air, as well as danger to wildlife like; acid rain; mercury poisoning; habitat disruption due to warming temperatures; etc.

Costs -

Scale Wind Turbines (home or farm);

Below 100 kilowatts, wind turbines cost approximately $3,000 - $8,000/ kilowatt of capacity

The extent required to function a large house - 10 kilowatt machine - may vary a price of $50,000 - $80,000, maybe even more for installation

Profitable Wind Turbines;

Varying from around $1.3 million - $2.2 million/ molecular weight is the price for a service scale wind turbine (installed)

Most profit-making graduated systems set up today are 2 molecular weight in it’s capacity - installed costing around $3-$4 million

Connection to solar cities -

Another way to generate electricity is the eco-friendly process, the utilization of turbines spun by wind, known as wind power. Solar cities obviously use wind power because it doesn't create air or water pollution, doesn't damage the environment, release greenhouse gas emissions, or anything in particular making this renewable source non-renewable.


This energy is obviously created by hydropower. This power is used by the falling/flowing of the water’s gravitational force. Mostly, worldwide, hydroelectric energy is utilized in the construction of renewable energy. Generated as the water progresses over large mechanical tubes, the water thrust forces the turbines to turn which then allows the mechanical energy constructed to transform into electricity.

Advantages -

Environmentally; A constant amount is fueled by water.

Environmentally/socially ; Clean source of energy - doesn’t create pollution in the air.

Manufactured dams can close their gates, as well as maintaining the usage of water for when the power is in higher requirement.

Disadvantages -

Economically; Expensive in cost to build hydroelectric plants, as well as the standard of the production.

Environmentally; A dam constructed can cause flooding of land resulting in natural habitats of animals, and people, as well as the environment around to be damaged.

Includes many water access issues.

The production of a dam in one certain area could result for individuals down river to not have control of the water flow, creating bickering in areas where neighboring countries share a water supply.

Costs -

The cost varies in investments between small hydropower projects and big hydropower plants measured per kilowatt. In big hydropower plants the prices go from an amount of $1050 per kilowatt to $7650 per kilowatt. Varying from an amount of $1300 per kilowatt to $8000 per kilowatt would be the cost of investments in small hydropower projects. In operations involving hydropower as well as dams without hydropower plants are inexpensive, with a price of $500 per kilowatt. All this information listed is from the report from IRENA.

Connection to solar cities -



Key sources powering non-renewable energy would be fossil fuels. The production of our main power sources, electricity, and energy are processed because fossil fuels are burned. These can't be utilized again, or restored, making it non-renewable. Unfortunately, non-renewable sources are important for us to utilize despite not being reusable, as well as naturally helpful. Moving on, non-renewable sources are used in our daily lives, examples would be the utilization of petroleum products such as transportation fuels and the usage of coal to heat and generate electricity. Different forms of non-renewable energy would be, coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.

Connection to Solar cities -

Solar cities do not promote the use of non-renewable energy sources but the natural way, renewable. This goes for all the non-renewable energy sources I have provided information on. ( coal, petroleum, and natural gas )


The production of coal to generate electricity is globally utilized. This generation plays a important part including electricity, like the utilization of phones, lights in our homes, transportation to places, and so much more.

Advantages -

Highly flammable organic rock, constructed mostly from; carbon oxygen; hydrogen ←key energy source.

Economically; jobs in the coal mining industry are generated.

This energy source is reasonably affordable - coal supplies electricity; utilized in the production of refrigerators and freezers to accomplish conservation of spoilable food.

Disadvantages -

Environmentally; the effect of coal manufacture into products creates/ releases injurious wastes; carbon dioxide; sulfuric acid; nitrogen oxide; sulfur dioxide. The extra 65% carbon dioxide released in the air, adds more greenhouse gases which is produced due to the coal burning.

Coal mining demolishes wildlife habitats (forest locations). Also, the outcome to the procedure results pollution in; water; soil; air - as well as acid rain.

Injuring neighbourhood wildlife would be the result of the mining equipment creating loud noises.

Costs -

Categorized into 4 prime positions ; lignite; subbituminous; bituminous; anthracite

The classification is required on the sizes as well as the types of carbon included and the size of heat energy it manufactures. Costing much more is coal with high intensity.

Regularly, (2014) the sale fees of coal at mines manufacturing every one of the 4 key levels of coal: Lignite which is around $19.44 per ton ; Subbituminous which is around $14.72 per ton ; Bituminous which is around $55.99 per ton; Anthracite which is around $90.98 per ton


Petroleum is in every material we basically utilize, like plastic, transportation fuels, road oil, etc. Petroleum products are very useful to our generation, but sadly not renewable.

Advantages -

The extraction of petroleum is simple. Extraction to oil under the surface of the planet is expanded suitably today. Simple to utilize oil installment in other geological orders.

Extraction at low expenses because the reality that petroleum manufacture needs decreased technical as well as physical attempt- related the different energy sources it is sold cheaper.

Assists the utilization of substantial power. Not similar with energy sources such as; solar; wind; oil - petroleum can manufacture power around-the-clock as well as being highly dependable to work alongside.

Disadvantages -

There are restrictions to its resources.

Environmental pollution is added because of petroleum ; the burning and extraction of petroleum creates greenhouse gases adding to the pollution in the environment, as well as global warming.

Harmful materials are produced by petroleum. Injurious, and deadly materials, as well as consisting plastic is the manufacture of petroleum.

Costs -

Varying from $31.6, $23.80, and $23.50 per barrel is the overall price for generation of crude oil.

The diagram below shows a graph of the amount one generated barrel costs in different countries.


This energy source is mostly made up of methane. The definition of methane would be a combustible gas which is unscented and does not consist of any colour, also known as the key component of natural gas. Moving on, this energy source is mainly known and utilized for fuel.

Advantages -

Economically; You save money because natural gas is less in price for functioning your appliances, than electric tools.

Natural gas operates without and with electricity generating.

Environmentally; This non-renewable energy sources is identified as the cleanest fossil fuel.

Disadvantages -

Economically/ environmentally; Natural gas is non-renewable energy source making it limited to a point, and releases greenhouse gas emissions. Obviously, the emissions are not good for the environment.

This non-renewable energy source is known to be highly combustible.

Costs -


As known, materials, everything is manufactured up of charge. When negative and positive charges builds up in a material and results in not being equal, static electricity is created. At times the charges built up in the material keeping working its way up waiting for an opportunity to set loose or to eject off the surface.

It’s use/ examples -

Some examples are the use of static electricity in pollution control, air fresheners, as well as in painting cars

Use in pollution control; Latering gathering static charge on a receiver’s reversed electrical charge which was once utilized to dirt particles in the atmosphere . These electronics are known to be called as electrostatic precipitators

Use in air fresheners; In the air are molecules which smell, the same molecules are charging from static electricity. Charging differently would be the air freshener's plate, and during this process the molecules which smell will then magnetizes towards the plate. That smell goes onto the plate eliminating the smell, then to restore a clean, new scent.

Connection to solar cities -

In solar cities, static electricity generates/ produces energy, apart from renewable sources. They are testing this by connecting electric bikes to bulbs for the production of energy. The plan for the upcoming years, for these electrical bikes is to attach a engine which would generate energy from static by securing fabric on the wheels, attached back to the engine. How does this generate energy? The wheel and fabric which is attached together, makes friction when you ride the bike, and you know what it creates.


Obviously, everything is made up of atoms. Atoms involve electrons, protons, neutrons.

Electrons contain a negative charge.

Protons contain a positive charge.

Neutrons contain a neutral charge.

All materials and everything is made up of charge.

Materials containing charge ( electrons or protons ) that are the same resist one another, so if a material had both positive charges is would resist each other. Same applies for materials with both negative charge.

Electron Transfer -

Electrons, either positive or negative charge’s movement to one area to another. An example would be electrons from light bulbs transferring energy directly from the power source.

How static electricity is transferred or can transfer -

Obviously, electrons ( which are negatively charged ) are transferred when two materials rub in contact with each other. One example which is most known is rubbing your socks against a carpet or a rug. This produces friction due to rubbing of those two materials coming into contact with one another, then resulting in transferring negative charge, electrons.

Examples of the transfer of static electricity -

When you take your hat off, transferring from your hat onto your hair are the electrons causing your hair to rise up. Your hair contains of a charge that is the same allowing it to stay at its end

Relating this example back to rubbing your socks against the carpet. The electrons created from the rubbing will transfer if you touch a metal door knob, or anything involving metal in this matter

Connection to solar cities -

The connection for the use of static electricity above connects her as well because the electrical bike transfers static electricity to create energy.


Insulators -

Doesn’t authorize electrons to transfer along to one surface

Examples of insulators would be - Glass; Wood; Wool; Plastic

Why don’t electrons transfer through glass or the other examples listed above?

The shift of electrons from the examples above do not pass through, or process slowly because they are materials enabling heat, as well as electricity.

Conductors -

Authorizes electrons to transfer along to another object.

Examples of conductors include- Steel; Sliver; Copper; Gold

Why do electrons transfer easily through the metals/examples listed above?

The transfer of electrons through the examples above, are moved easily due to the shift of heat as well as the electricity passing. Also, allowing the movement of electrons off simple, is the high frequency accepting for the molecules to progress on its own.

The picture below is an example of both an insulator and conductor. The copper wire is a conductor. The plastic part surrounding the wire is an insulator.

Connection to solar cities -

Boston University's research professor Malay Mazumder, managed work based on advanced technology for eventual rover assignments to Mars. However, the technology was found useful on our planet to preserve solar panels to run at capacity. Dust on solar panels are eliminated 90% within a rotation of two minutes, because it uses electrostatic charge for the dust to move or sit at the border surrounding the solar panel. Solar cities do use solar panels, and this is a great way keeping the panels clean for good use.


Series circuit/ example -

Series circuits have only one route for electrons to flow. The diagram below shows the only way for electrons to pass through.

Parallel circuit/ example -

In a parallel circuit, different bulbs are connected to different wires. This circuit involves two or more wires. If one path (wire) is broken, then the electric currents will flow into another path that is available.

Series-parallel circuit/ example -

For electrons to pass, as well as flow there are two loops available.

Connection to solar cities -

Solar cities use solar panels. These panels are wired in series and parallel circuits. The use of the parallel circuit is because if one path is breaks, another path is still available for the current to pass through.


These are 4 steps to determine the energy use of various electrical devices :

Step #1 - To receive the amount of watt hours utilized a day, you take the number of watts located within an electronic and multiply it by the quantity of hours that electronic was used for.

Step #2 - Divide the watts by 1000, after you transform the number of watts from step one to kilowatts.

Step #3 - After step one and two are completed, find the information regarding how many kilowatt hours the electronic is utilized in a month by multiplying the days in one month with the watts.

Step #4 - The final step includes going over your payment based on every kilowatt hour your electricity debit contains. Lastly, going back the last step, take the kilowatt hour you figured out and multiply it along the amount of kilowatt hour that costs you every month.

The steps above are important for you to acknowledge because it will help you improve on the amount of energy you consume each day/ month. Not to mention, save your money.

This image shows the number of watts consumed from the types of appliances used at home -

In my opinion, the image above shows what we use in our daily lives, using up energy and leaving our carbon footprints behind without knowledge of the amount we are utilizing the power.

Connection to solar cities -

Solar cities obviously consider and limit the amount of energy usage they consume. They control their actions, for example using an electronic for when its really necessary, or conserving the quantity of energy used in a day.

AC & DC -

DC stands for direct current defining electrical charges in this current only pass through in one direction. These types of currents are generated from cells, as well as batteries known as electrochemical and photovoltaic.

AC stands for alternating current defining the electrical charge in the current switches its direction repeatedly, and the voltage contained in AC circuits reverse constantly due to the current’s switch of management. There types of currents are able to transform into direct currents because a power contribution involves an appliance recognized as a rectifier, as well as a filter. What a rectifier does is blocks the electrical charge of any current from turning opposite directions. A filter destroys the manufacturing of the rectifier’s current from fluttering. It is known for any device, or computer hardware, it will impact off the utilization to DC for it to complete its purpose. An alternator, which is an electronic planned for the utilization to generate an alternating current, contains a wire looped, then rotated by a wind turbine, or the flow of water, there is a magnetic field for the current to move down the loop’s wire.

Resistance is the amount measured between how much the device or object is decreasing in terms of flow of the current.

Potential difference is known to be the variation of electrical potential linking 2 positions.

The flow of electrical charge is in a electric current.( also known as current electricity )

The difference between AC & DC -

Like I had mentioned before, above;

Direct currents contain electrical charges which only pass through in one direction.

Alternating currents have electrical charges in the current which switches its direction repeatedly, and the voltage contained in AC circuits reverse constantly due to the current’s switch of management.

The similarity between AC & DC -

In these circuits, the power contained generates an electrical current which allows negative electrons to pass through, also AC and DC are able to control energy it can monitor.

Equipement measuring electrical quantities in circuits -

Connection to solar cities -

I've repeated constantly of how solar power is a key factor towards the benefit of solar cities. The cells on the panels are consuming the energy coming from the sun making this the process all day. The cells contain circuits, then to pile the energy for a transformation to direct current electricity, making the current flow across an electronic named an inverter. This inverter modifies into alternating current electricity for utilization in your home or business.

Focus on the dc electricity information


The difference between the two topics -

Static electricity is the result of built electrical charge onto a material's surface.

Current electricity is also known as an electric current, which is the flow of an electrical charge.

The similarities between the two topics -

Static and current electricity are similar because;

1) They shift electrical charges

2) Are known as conductors and insolators

3) They are a formation of some type of electricity


Investigate, assess and evaluate the positive and negative environmental impact of scientific developments and technology as it pertains to themselves, Canada and the world -

Today, the world’s electricity generation utilizes a lot of power portraying electricity. However, this can produce environmental impacts taking responsibility on the environment around. Disadvantages toward the environment would be the fossil fuels, and different types of fuels utilized for the production of electricity. What these fuels result in is the discharge of air pollution, to depend on considerable loads to cool water, etc. Creating radioactive excess would be the production from nuclear power plants. It is said that provision from renewable energy impacts wildlife around, including excess that can be unsafe. Advantages toward the environment would be the generation of electricity from renewable sources. These sources can be utilized over and over again, reducing risk of pollution in the atmosphere as well as the water from creating exposure to health issues such as breathing, cancer, etc.

Investigate, assess and evaluate the positive and negative economical impact of scientific developments and technology as it pertains to themselves, Canada and the world -

The positive impact to the economical generation of electricity would be the success it brings towards the government in terms of money. It creates more jobs to be available for consideration, creates an easier lifestyle for us to exist in. An example would be the use of our devices, also making communication more accessible. The negative impacts would be government files, nuclear codes, etc. can be exposed if an individual hacks into necessary information. Another disadvantage would be if one insufficiency of electronics in a company goes down, the money they worked for that particular day as well as the exchange between wires and equipment will too.

Investigate, assess and evaluate the positive and negative social impact of scientific developments and technology as it pertains to themselves, Canada and the world -

Once again, mentioning the utilization of renewable energy, it can create a positive advantage towards the health of each individual rather than the usage of fossils fuels. What fossil fuels do is generate big quantities of pollution, causing harms towards an individual’s safety and health. Many issues portraying these concerns of pollution have generated serious sickness, but we have improved by the modern growth of renewable technology such as, solar power, wind power, hydroelectric power, etc. Solar energy has impacted the problem most from all the renewable tech because individuals can buy electronics based off of the energy rather than spending more money than needed. A lot of people will start feeling less tension in terms of paying electricity bills because there was a recent plan to build solar panels to secure it to buildings. This would mean they wouldn’t be so dependable on the electricity generating everything, but sit back with ease knowing energy from the solar panels will power their appliances. Not to mention, on those days where sun won’t be out, it will store the sun’s energy from the previous day.

Use the scientific inquiry framework to model and explore how matter and energy interact and are transferred through systems -

I am going to connect this overarching learning goal alongside static electricity. As known, electrons (negative charge), protons (positive charge), and neutrons (don't carry charge) are the particles made from atoms. Matter subsists in atoms. When in the atom, the particles such as protons and neutrons are alongside another, and are located in the nucleus, the electrons go in a cycle around the nucleus. Friction is one example of how energy is transferred through. Static electricity is generated by the production of 2 objects rubbing against one another. Friction charges the objects while the other material isn't attracted, the second material is drawn towards the negatively charged particles known as electrons. This results for the conductor (easily charged substance) of the two objects will end up containing all the electrons, and all the protons for the other. There are many different ways for energy to be transferred, but my focus was on friction since I had already researched, and known how the information connects to this old.

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