Social Studies Study guide - civics


Social contract: Social agreement among members of society for social benefits by sacrificing individual freedom to state protection.

Common good: Shared benefits of a given community that apply for all citizens.

Political parties: "The two broad-based major political parties offer alternatives to voters and help connect citizens to their government" in the United States. But there are countries with more than only two parties, such as Brazil, with 15+.

Representative Democracy: Elected officials representing a group of people.

The Enlightenment: Period in the history of western thought and culture. revolutions in science, philosophy, and politics.

John Locke: English philosopher, regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers.

Jean Jacque Rousseau: well known Enlightenment tinker, influenced the "French Revolution", and the development of educational and political thought.

Thomas Hobbes: considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Social contract theory.

Baron de Montesquieu: Famous for his theory of separation of power.

The Magna Carta: "to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown" -Wikipedia.

The English Bill of Rights: the Bill creates separation of powers, limits the powers of the king and queen, enhances the democratic election and bolsters freedom of speech.

Committee: A group of people appointed for a specific function.

Apportionment: the determination of the proportional number of members each US state sends to the House of Representatives, based on population figures.

Gerrymandering: manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class.

Redistricting: All United States representatives and state legislators are elected from political divisions called districts.

Expressed, Delegated Powers: those powers, expressed, implied, or inherent, granted to the National Government by the Constitution.

Implied Powers: powers not explicitly named in the Constitution but assumed to exist due to their being necessary to implement the expressed powers that are named in Article I.

Inherent Powers: Inherent powers are those powers that Congress and the president need in order to get the job done right, not specified in the Constitution.

Reserved Powers: those powers which are not "enumerated" (written down, assigned).

Privileges and Immunities: prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner.

Government Types and Create a Country

Parliamentary: is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch

constitutional: relating to an established set of principles governing a state.

Democracy: a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.

Federal: A federal government is a system that divides up power between a strong national government and smaller local governments

Monarchy: a form of government with a monarch at the head.

They are the same as they are all are set-up to protect their citizens, and govern their territory.

This types of governments are also different, as which one of them govern differently, Democracy by election, Monarchy (probably) by inheritance, the Royal family

School Proposal Activity:

Committees are important to organize, consider, shape bills to be later voted by the Senate or the House of representative

Individuals can have a voice in their government by electing people that they think would do a good job representing them, writing letters to senators, and organize protests.

Our Political Beginnings Notes:

Magna Carta: defined the rights and duties of English nobles in order to limit King's power.

English Bill of Rights: In 1689 English nobles reaffirmed principles of individual rights, with about 4 amendments, and also established the power of parliament over the power of monarchy.

Theories of Power: Divine Right, Social Contract:

Social contract: people were too selfish and needed someone to rule over them, removing individual freedom for a greater sense of protection.

Divine right: God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God

The Enlightenment Notes:

Thomas Hobbes: 1588 - 1679

All individuals in nature are equal but pessimistic about humans; Everyone against each other. Nature is a state of war.

Baron De Montesquieu: 1689 - 1755

People are power hungry, People are fear-driven, therefore forming societies to their own protection, and he also said about the separation of power, as people are power hungry, the government should be in a way that each part; Executive; Legislative; Judicial; could check, and limit power of each branch of the government.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: 1712 - 1778

developed around the idea of Social Contract, and was optimistic about society; a good government was one that was freely formed (Democracy) and was guided by the general will of the people.

John Locke: 1623 - 1703

Optimistic about society, thought of Natural Rights; Exists to preserve like, liberty and property, and people should be able to revolt if government doesn't provide said rights. We are all born equal, nurture makes us different.

Articles of Confederation Notes:

Problems of the AOC were ones such as; No power, and no money to trade with foreign countries, as the states traded directly, financing, foreign relations, England would harass American shipping, and Interstate relations, war nearly broke out because of tariffs

Shay's Rebellion showed how the government was weak, military-wise, and could not defend them selves against a rebellion, therefore forcing the states to ask for a new, stronger federal government.

Constitution Convention Notes:

1787, took place in Philadelphia, where delegates, wealthy, white males, from all states, but Rhode Island attended to create a stronger federal government, and with it, creating a new constitution.

Preamble: "the introductory part of a statute or deed, stating its purpose, aims, and justification".

The 3 (three) branches of the government are legislative, executive, and judicial. They check each other for a common purpose of balance on system, such as; executive can veto bills passed through the legislative; judicial interpret laws made by legislative; etc...

10 Amendments:

1. Freedom of speech, religion, press, etc.

2. Right to keep and bear arms.

3. The conditions for quartering soldiers.

Not necessary to have soldiers in your house, just in case of war

4. Right of search and seizure.

5. Provisions regarding the prosecution of an individual.

6. Right to a speedy trial.

7. Right to trial by jury.

8. Provision against excessive bail and cruel punishment before trial.

9. Rule of construction regarding the constitution; and

10. The rights of the states under the Constitution.

Federalism is a general government, federal, combined with regional government (provincial, state), with different hierarchies between a regional government, and a federal hierarchy that would control the ones below it.

Created By
Eduardo Gimenis


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