Social contract: Social agreement among members of society for social benefits by sacrificing individual freedom to state protection.
Common good: Shared benefits of a given community that apply for all citizens.
Political parties: "The two broad-based major political parties offer alternatives to voters and help connect citizens to their government" in the United States. But there are countries with more than only two parties, such as Brazil, with 15+.
Representative Democracy: Elected officials representing a group of people.
The Enlightenment: Period in the history of western thought and culture. revolutions in science, philosophy, and politics.
John Locke: English philosopher, regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers.
Jean Jacque Rousseau: well known Enlightenment tinker, influenced the "French Revolution", and the development of educational and political thought.
Thomas Hobbes: considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Social contract theory.
Baron de Montesquieu: Famous for his theory of separation of power.
The Magna Carta: "to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown" -Wikipedia.
The English Bill of Rights: the Bill creates separation of powers, limits the powers of the king and queen, enhances the democratic election and bolsters freedom of speech.
Committee: A group of people appointed for a specific function.
Apportionment: the determination of the proportional number of members each US state sends to the House of Representatives, based on population figures.
Gerrymandering: manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class.
Redistricting: All United States representatives and state legislators are elected from political divisions called districts.
Expressed, Delegated Powers: those powers, expressed, implied, or inherent, granted to the National Government by the Constitution.
Implied Powers: powers not explicitly named in the Constitution but assumed to exist due to their being necessary to implement the expressed powers that are named in Article I.
Inherent Powers: Inherent powers are those powers that Congress and the president need in order to get the job done right, not specified in the Constitution.
Reserved Powers: those powers which are not "enumerated" (written down, assigned).
Privileges and Immunities: prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner.