In the 50s, most people were against brinkmanship, and didn't want to use nuclear weapons in Cold Wars. To avoid this, President Truman used Covert Operations. So, the Central Intelligence Agency, or the CIA, was born from the National Security Act in 1947.
President Truman creating the National Security Act, and the CIA.
The Dulles Brothers
John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles had a major part in the making of the CIA and everything it was involved with.
John Foster Dulles was The Secretary of State in 1953, when Eisenhower was President. The two were very close, and as a result Eisenhower shared information with Dulles about happenings in the CIA. This was one way that Dulles started close work with the CIA which was led by his brother at one point. This started a long close relationship with the government and the CIA.
Allen Dulles is like his brother in the sense that they both were lawyers before work with the government. While the CIA was being created in 1947, Dulles was helping a lot with just basic construction of this new organization. In 1951, he became the deputy director. Then, he became the director of the CIA. All this occurred while Eisenhower was President, and his brother, John Foster Dulles, was Secretary of State. The Dulles brothers can connect to Proxy War because they both helped create the CIA, so the US could start to use Covert Operations.
The first major Covert Operation
The first major Covert Operation was in 1951 when the Iranian ruler was overpowered by Mosaddeq. Because the overpowered ruler was not against U.S. policies, we felt that we should stop this new ruler. Also, the American people thought that Mosaddeq was a communist, and we did not like that. To stop him, Great Britain and the United States created operation ajax. Although we overthrew Mosaddeq, Iran became less of an ally.
Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
The second major Covert Operation
The second major Covert Operation was in Guatemala when Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman became President. He set up land and labor reforms, and moved American fields and processing plants. The Secretary of State went to the United Nations Court to prove that the goings on in Guatemala was the perfect example of international communism. In 1954 the CIA recruited troops to invade and overthrow Arbenz. Arbenz was suddenly terrified for his life and resigned. This led to a pro-capitalist government and renewed the friendship with the United States and Guatemala.
The third major Covert Operation
In 1979, the Sandinistas, or Nicaraguan rebels, overthrew their dictator we became very concerned. This wasn't only because the dictator was an american ally, we were also worried that Daniel Ortega, the new leader of Nicaragua, was a communist. Then, in 1981, the US urged Nicaragua to stop helping the revolution in El Salvador. Because they wouldn't do this, we cut off all the things that were economically helping them. We then started helping the Contras, who were also against the Sandinistas. We spent 20 million dollars to help get the Contras ready for anything the rebels could throw at them. In 1982, the American public was scared that it would turn out like Vietnam did. Because of this fear, Congress decided to pass laws banning the US from doing anything against the Nicaraguan government. Although it was banned, the then current President Ronald Reagan found a way to help the Contras.